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1. What do ethicists do?
Ethicists evaluate human activity to determine the relative goodness or evil (right or wrong) of
an action that has either taken place or is being proposed.
2.What is applied ethics?
Applied ethics is a subset of ethics that focuses on applying ethical principles and theories on a
specific set of circumstances.
3. What two general categories do systems of applied ethics fall into? Name and explain.
The two general categories in which systems of applied ethics fall into are:
â? Decision making systems: answers the question â??what should I do?â?? and people that
decide to use this system aim to make the right decision when they face a moral dilemma
by applying a guiding principle and choosing the best option.
â? Character-based systems. Answers the question â??what should I do?â?? or â??Who should I
becomeâ??. The real value of this system lies in their capacity to foster moral growth and
promote character development.
4. What is consequentialism?
Consequentialism is a decision-making ethical theory that focused on the results, or
consequences, when evaluating the moral worth of a particular course of action.
5. What is egoism?
It is a kind of consequentialism that happens if the group of people affected by a moral dilemma
consists of only oneself.
6. When is egoism problematic?
Egoism is problematic when the pursuit of oneâ??s own interest differs to the welfare of others. It is
not much an ethical theory as a description of self-interested behavior.
7. What is utilitarianism?
Utilitarianism is the category of ethical analysis that tries to take into account the good of all of
those being influenced by a decision.
8.What does the Greek root of deontology mean?
The Greek root deon means duty or obligation.
9. What do deontologists focus on when evaluating ethical issues?
When evaluating ethical issues, deontologistsâ?? focus on evaluating individual cases based on
certain expectations about the principles people should apply when making decisions about what
to do in a given dilemma.
10. What is the role of â??resultsâ? in consequentialist and deontological systems?
While consequentialist look exclusively at the concrete results of actions, deontologists often
view these results as distractions because of their unpredictability.
11. Do you agree with consequentialists more or deonotologists on the role of results in an
ethical decision? Explain why.
I do agree more with deontologists. This is because it considers the intentions of the actors.
12. Does consequentialism take an inductive or deductive approach? Explain.
Consequentialists take an inductive approach because it is concerned with the results or data that
come from each course of action (the same as experimental sciences).
13. Does deontological methods take an inductive or deductive approach? Explain.
Deontological methods, as opposed to consequentialists, take a deductive approach to decide the
goodness based on principles defined as universal (the same as theoretical sciences).
14. What is a virtue?
A virtue is an ancient ethical concept that assigns moral value to both behavior and character
traits that conform to notions of â??the goodâ??.
15. How does virtue ethics determine the morality of an action?
Virtue ethics establishes the morality of an action trough the evaluation of peopleâ??s behavior and
character to conform standards of perfection.
16. What is phronesis?
Phronesis is an application of virtue (as a practical guide to behavior). When virtues are applied
to behavior, one particular course of action might be honest, courageous, and forthright while
another might be cowardly, deceptive, and cunning.
17. What is arête?
Arête is the virtue to analyze the character of individuals, when virtue is applied as character
traits to describe a person and assign that person a standing in the moral universe.
18. According to virtue ethicists, what is the ultimate purpose of virtue behavior?
According to virtue ethicists, the ultimate purpose of all virtuous behavior is eudemonia; a
human happiness or the deep satisfaction that someone ought to feel at the end of a life well
19. For Aristotle, how was happiness NOT achieved?
According to Aristotle, happiness was not achieved through the accumulation of wealth, the
exercise of power, or the gaining of recognition and frame.
20. For Aristotle, how was happiness achieved?
For Aristotle, happiness was achieved through the moral worth of the decisions one made
throughout oneâ??s life.
21. Do you agree or disagree with Aristotleâ??s argument regarding what does and does not
result in happiness?
I do agree with Aristotleâ??s argument about what does and does not result in happiness.
22. What do you think about the virtues that all Hindus are called to adhere to by the
sanatana dharma?
I think sanatana dharma is a comprehensive group of virtues that could drive Hindus to gain
peace and happiness.
23. What is strict egalitarianism and why has it been found not to be practically realizable?
Strict egalitarianism demands that everyone in a society receive the same income and resources.
It has been found not to be practically realizable because it is very difficult to enforce absolute
equality in circumstances in which individual strengths and weaknesses are diverse, and in
environments in which the constant introduction of novel elements throws the equilibrium off
24. What is resource egalitarianism?
It is demanding equal distribution of only certain resources in a society.
25. What is desert-based justice?
Desert-based justice is that people should be rewarded for their activities in accordance with their
contribution to the social product.
26. Does desert-based justice account for the reality of how our lives are lived in society?
Desert-based justice does not account for the randomness, chaos, messiness, and unpredictability
of human life and society. For the reality of how our lives are lived, some people fail due to
unforeseen circumstances such as illness, accidents, or the collateral damage inflicted by family
member who need their assistance.
27. What does the author mean when he says that these principles do not have a developed
notion of social value and social utility?
The author means Desert-based principles assume that societies frequently reward wasteful,
useless, and even counterproductive activities.
28. What is libertarian justice?
Libertarian justice places greater emphasis on freedom and less on the capacity of a society to
engineer equality through law, policy, and regulation.
29. What does the radical self-ownership understanding of libertarians deny, that other
understandings of justice see as fundamental?
The concept of radical self-ownership denies the obvious social construction of the self and of
oneâ??s role in the larger context of society. Selfhood is beholden to a myriad of human
relationships that teach, influence, assist, resist, challenge, counsel, and so forth.
30. What is utilitarian justice?
Utilitarian justice is a theory that takes the larger web of social relationships very seriously. It
consists of choosing the policy alternatives that will result in the greatest good for society as a
31. What is the most often-cited weakness of utilitarian justice?
Sometimes utilitarianism has difficulty condemning alternatives that clearly sacrifice individual
rights and liberty, when it judges those alternatives as resulting in the greatest overall good for
the majority of the members of society.
32. What is the main principle in a Rawlsian understanding of justice?
It is based on the welfare of the least well-off in society. It can be determined by the fate of its
poorest and most marginalized members. The more just a society is, the better off the poor in that
society will be, relatively speaking.
33. What is the focus of a teleological theory?
Teleological ethical perspective concentrates on the ultimate purpose of human striving. It is
concerned about only the immediate results to the extent that they are properly ordered toward a
larger purpose.
34. Of the theories covered so far, which one do you find most compelling and why? What
are its strengths and weaknesses?
The theories I find most compelling is Deontology.
Strengths: it considers the importance of human dignity when requesting us to treat each other as
an end, never as a mean only.
Weaknesses: deontological moral expectations can be tied to more specific and local roles that
people play in a certain society.
35. Of the theories covered so far, which one/s do you find least compelling and why?
The theory I find least compelling is Libertarianism because I consider it makes the society weak
since it does not care about the common interests and happiness of all people.
36. What resources can Catholics use for trying to understand the behaviors that should or
should not be part of our lives or human society?
The Catholicsâ?? sources are divine command, magisterium and tradition.
37. What other resources do Catholics appeal to in order to understand how to live our
lives in a morally upright manner?
Other resources to which Catholics appeal are the natural law, conscience, and practical moral
38. How do natural law theologians determine what is right and wrong?
The natural law theologians do view ethics as something humans discover in the same way that
they discern the laws of other preexisting orders like those in the physical universe.
39. What is the role of oneâ??s â??conscience?â?
Conscience describes that internal voice possessed by each individual that serves to guide and
correct behavior and form oneâ??s moral character.
40. What 3 steps are involved when one uses his/her conscience?
The act of conscience has three distinct steps: synderesis (Greek term that highlights the innate),
moral science, and conscience.
41. Why is practical moral reasoning important?
It is important because it becomes an actual discipline under the more practical circumstances of
the penitential rites that developed in the church in the century and beyond. Catholic moral
theology is, in many respects, a kind of professional ethic.
42. As a result of what historical circumstances did Catholics develop a systematic social
It has its root in the Catholic transition from a mindset wedded to the medieval economic, social,
and political establishment to one that embraced, at least in part, the liberal, industrial, and
democratic structures that were replacing the ancien régime.
43. What are four important issues that Social Catholics in the 19th century believed needed
to be fought against?
Child labor- the separation of the sexes in the workplace- the closing of unsanitary workshops
and individualism in a modern context. They did not believe that private property was an
absolute value and argued that the state needed to rein in laissez-faire capitalism through
regulations and taxes.
44. What is the name of the inaugural official document of modern Catholic social teaching
and what was it primarily concerned with?
The inaugural official document of modern Catholic social teaching was named Rerum novarum
(RN), what means â??On the Condition of Laborâ??. It was primarily concerned with harsh conditions
of industrial laborers, extremes of socialism, and capitalist laissez-faire.

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