Paraphrasing case studies

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Case study #1: One Acre Fund
1. What do you think about Andrew Youn and John Gachungaâ??s decision to launch the
OAF after graduate school? Is this a good way to apply the skills acquired by these talented
young businessmen? Should business schools promote this kind of social entrepreneurship
in their MBA programs?
I think that what Youn and Gachungaâ??s decision to launch OAF after graduate school is an
excellent idea. Although the organization was a non-profit, it helps a lot of farmers yield more
crops which also means more income for them and more income for their family. This is a good
way to apply their skills because they are making a sustainable organization which means that
they can also be good businessmen. Schools should promote this kind of social entrepreneurship
because it is a big help to many poor communities and it can have a positive impact in the
economy of the nation and the world as well. When more farmers benefit from the program, they
will have more harvest which means more supply for the world. With more supply, these farmers
can have more money and more purchasing power. They can buy more things and other
industries will also benefit from increased sales as well.
2. In what ways do you think that OAF was inspired by a genuine sense of solidarity? How
does solidarity inform the ongoing operation of the fund?
It was inspired by a genuine sense of solidarity because it takes a genuine and caring heart to
start the OAF since it is a non-profit organization. Solidarity makes the farmers help each other
by paying their debts on time so other farmers can also benefit from the program. Without
solidarity, farmers cannot benefit from it because the money will be gone fast when nobody is
cooperating by paying on time. Also, solidarity makes more farmers invite people like them who
can benefit from the program and together they help each other grow and increase their profit
and standard of living.
3. Do you think the six values of the OAF are adequate and helpful for employees of the
OAF? Would you add other values to this list? Do any seem unnecessary? Have you ever
worked at a company that had an explicity set of values or a code of conduct? How did it
compare to the list of values at OAF?
They are good for the farmers but I do not think they are enough for the employees of the OAF.
These employees have their own needs and they have their families, too. That means that their
situation should also be considered. The six values should include the values that will benefit the
employees because they are the ones that make the OAF run and without them, nobody can
benefit from the OAF program. However, it is good that employees are taught to be humble and
word hard. However, the employees should not be forced to work hard when they cannot like
when they are sick. The health and life of employees are also important so OAF should take care
of them.
4. Can you think of a need that could be met using the same kind of moral imagination
Youn and Gachunga used when they conceived of a better way to finance rural farming in
Africa?
I think of the need of people addicted in drugs of ex-convicts and also the situation of the
gangsters mentioned in the other case since these people find it hard to get employment. When
this same kind of moral imagination is used to help these people, then the crimes will decrease
and safety in the community will increase. There will be fewer problems with peace and order.
When these people are given chance and trained how to get income from other jobs, then they
will be more productive and they can contribute to the society better.
Case #2: The Solar Suitcase
1. Like the One Acre Fund, We Care Solar decided to organize tits business around a
nonprofit model. Are there advantages to this business model? Why do you think these
companies decided to use this model?
The advantages to this model is that it can attract more people who want to help the society
knowing that the model is a nonprofit and was designed to help the community first rather than
to make profit. Aside from that, it can save more lives and like what happened in Nigeria, the
mortality rate fell down and many lives were saved because of the project. More than money,
this nonprofit model saves lives of many.
2. In what ways does the principle of solidarity apply in this case? When and how did the
founders demonstrate solidarity?
The principle of solidarity applies in the willingness of Dr. Laura Statchel to spend time and
effort together with her husband to create an invention that will help the people in Nigeria. It
happened when Dr. Statchel felt the need to help the people in Nigeria with the highest mortality
rate in the world. It was not a desire to get profit from them because the people there are not rich
but with the help of other people who are willing to help, mortality rates went down and the
Solar Suitcase was able to help many individuals. As the production will go higher, the price of
the Solar Suitcase will be cheaper and will benefit more and more people. Although they do not
have the money, the solidarity of the people uniting together to help them will be enough to save
the many lives in Nigeria.
3. What considerations â?? other than price and quantity â?? might We Care Solar consider as
they continue to refine their product to better meet the needs of their customers?
When they refine the product, they might want to consider the quality of We Care Solar. That
means that the product should last for many years so as the supply goes higher, the availability of
it will increase as well and more and more people will benefit from it. If it lasts for just a year,
the money spent on We Care Solar suitcase will not be that much valuable because it can last for
only a year. So, the quality should also be the focus.
4. Using We Care Solar as a model, can you think of other circumstances in which the
application of a relatively simple technology or service made an important difference in the
lives of a large number of people?
There are many circumstances like this just like the people creating a machine that can clean
water so people will not have diseases from cleaning water. I also saw recently that people create
simple machine that can reduce the heat inside the home. These are people who have the
resources joining together to help those who do not have the resources to help themselves. These
are great examples of solidarity in which people unite to help other people. There are still many
projects like these that we might not know but there are still many people who are willing to help
many communities in the world.
Case Study #1: No Hersheyâ??s Kisses for Children of Africa
1. Why is it difficult to enforce good corporate behavior in multinational corporations such
as Hershey, which depends on a variety of suppliers that are often located in developing
areas of the world?
Good corporate behavior is hard to enforce when the corporations think about their profit first
rather than people. When they think about profit and staying in business, they will not care
anymore how these suppliers supply them with the products or materials they need. Aside from
that, with its many suppliers, it is hard to track at times all these suppliers and if they are
following the international standards of human labor and whether they violate human rights or
not. Moreover, the developing areas of the world do not have so much considerations on the
human rights because they are thinking about their survival. For example, Ghana is so poor and
they think that having less than $1 dollar a day for 12 hours of work will be better than not
having any amount at all. Perhaps when the job from Hershey is not there, they will have nothing
at all. Their situation is being exploited and they still consider they are in a better situation.
2. Can Hershey be held responsible for the labor practices of its suppliers? To what extent
is Hershey being pressured to oversee and regulate the operations of foreign suppliers in
ways that mimic that actions that a government ought to take?
Yes, Hershey can be held responsible for them. However, the responsibility is not all from them.
When the demand is so high that responsible suppliers cannot keep up anymore, Hershey has no
choice but to look for additional suppliers even when their standards are lower than what they
expect. Since the supply is driven by the demand, Hershey can only do its best to make sure that
the supply meets the demand because it is their business. I think Hershey is being pressured too
much because governments have labor laws and they should be the one ensuring that the
businesses are following the law in their countries.
3. When people purchase Hersheyâ??s products, patronize its amusement park, see a doctor
at the Hershey Hospital, or support the companyâ??s foundation, are they cooperating in
human rights abuses?
It depends. When people are not aware yet of what is happening and they do not know that
Hershey is responsible for human rights abuses of its suppliers to their laborers in Africa, then
they are not cooperating in human rights abuses. However, when these consumers already know
what is happening and they are not doing about it and they still support the company by buying
their products, then it means that they are cooperating in human rights abuses in indirect manner.
4. What kind of ethical responsibility, if any, does Hershey have to Ghana should it no
longer need its cocoa?
Hershey profited a lot from the low labor cost in Ghana and also from the land and workers
there. In the law of the country, Hershey might not have responsibility anymore when it no
longer need the cocoa in Ghana but in the view of human rights and corporate responsibility,
Hershey should help in giving back to Ghana because Ghana helped its business so the company
should give back by supporting more businesses in Ghana that offers the people fair pay and fair
labor laws. Hershey can also create projects that will help the community in Ghana leave better
lives and improve their skills so they can have other source of income aside from planting and
harvesting cocoa.
Case Study #2: The Bitter Internal Drive of Apple
1. Foxconn has raised questions about continuing to act as a supplier for Apple,
investigating options with other high-tech firms. Foxconn has indicated that it has taken
too much of the blame for the human rights abuses that should have been shared with
Apple. What degree of the responsibility does Apple have in this case?
Both companies are responsible. Foxconn is a supplier. When it agreed to have a contract with
Apple, it already knew the number of the demands of Apple and it should know whether it has
the capacity to deliver or not. When it knew that it would sacrifice the working conditions of its
employers just to meet the demands of Apple, it should have been transparent with Apple so
Apple can get another or additional supplier. Foxconn is a different company and has a different
management. The blame will only come to Apple when after knowing the harsh conditions of the
employees at Foxconn does not do anything to save the employees but would rather save its
business. The degree of responsibility of Apple in this case depends on its knowledge of the
harsh conditions there and its actions to make sure that Foxconn is following the human rights
law as the supplier of Apple.
2. Outsourcing has been an efficient and profitable option for many multinational
corporations. What responsibility does the primary producer have to ensure that human
rights are fostered and responsibilities are met by the subcontracting company?
The responsibility of the primary producer as the main company selling the products is great. For
instance, Apple is the primary producer and Foxconn is the subcontracting company. Both of
them are doing just the same products for Apple. In the end, the finished products will be sold by
Apple under its name and not under Foxconn. The consumers will not be aware that some parts
of the products are associated with Foxconn unless they read this information somewhere. Since
Apple is the primary company and the one selling the products under its name and brand, then it
should be responsible in ensuring that its suppliers are following its standards and that includes
respecting the human rights of the people according to the law. Apple is responsible to check if
the company are complying or not and make the necessary changes when suppliers are not
following.
3. Many people own at least one Apple product. To what degree are consumers cooperating
in the human rights abuses at Foxconn?
When consumers already know the human rights violation of the suppliers of Apple and Apple
knows about it but did not do any action, then the consumers are responsible to tell Apple that
they are doing a wrong thing by not buying their products. However, when Apple already did its
best in correcting the mistake and the consumers are buying the products because they need it,
then they are not responsible anymore for the human rights abuses at Foxconn. Many people do
not even know about it so they will not be responsible even when they buy the products. This is a
problem of Apple to its suppliers and the consumers are just creating demands and it is up to
Apple on how to keep on those demands without violating human dignity and human rights.
4. It could be argued that if it werenâ??t for Apple using Foxconn as its supplier, the people
working in these factories might suffer even more from human rights violations. After all,
Apple is attempting to remedy violations that the FLA identifies. Further, without Appleâ??s
demand for their labor, the workers might not have jobs and might be living lives of abject
poverty. Is this supply chain, despite the credible reports of human rights abuses, a
â??necessary evilâ??
In one way, the jobs created by Apple help the people there. What is not right is the working
conditions that workers work 7 days a week and work more than 60 hours a week. This is not
right anymore and this endangers the lives of the workers that some of them just kill themselves
to escape their misery. Since the jobs really help and improve the standard of living of the
people, it is not necessary evil. It only becomes evil when profit comes first before people that
Foxconn do not care anymore even if their employees die working as long as they deliver the
demand needed by Apple. It is their company so Foxconn is the main responsible for that. Apple
has other suppliers but that problem is not present in other suppliers because they manage their
business well unlike Foxconn who are thinking more about profit than people.

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