paraphrasing only

hello i want you to paraphrase for me chapter 1 ONLY to avoid plagiarism because my friend is using the same document, i will send the document below it will include 2 chapters ignore chapter 2 just paraphrase chapter 1 (Background, limitation of constructed wetland and the problem statement)and the references are below if you need them to refer to (might help)
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CONSTRUCTED WESTLAND FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Constructed Westland for Wastewater Treatment
1
CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT
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Table of Contents
Background ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
Limitations of Constructed Wetlands ………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
Problem Statement ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7
Objectives ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
Literature Review ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
Domestic , Municipal and Industrial Wastewater ……………………………………………………………………………. 9
Conventional Wastewater Treatment ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
Conventional Wastewater Treatment Process …………………………………………………………………………… 11
Primary Treatment ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11
Secondary Treatment………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
Tertiary Treatment ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12
Constructed Wetlands ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
Advantages of Constructed Wetlands ……………………………………………………………………………………… 14
The Main Benefits and Outcomes of the Constructed Wetlands ………………………………………………….. 15
Types of Constructed Wetlands ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
Components of Constructed Wetlands……………………………………………………………………………………… 16
Water ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
Substrates, Sediments, and Litter …………………………………………………………………………………………. 17
Vegetation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17
Microorganisms …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 18
Animals……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19
References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20
CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT
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CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT
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Background
Among the most vital elements that contribute to the creation and sustenance of a good,
proper and healthy life not only in living organisms but non-living organisms as well, is water.
Water is a crucial element on planet Earth because it supports life. For this reason, it is wise for
mankind to protect all water resources since water in all countries across the globe, is considered
as an invaluable element which man cannot do without. Water pollution is a major environmental
hazard that is continuously imposing threats not only to the environment but to the water bodies
as well. Exhaust fumes and industrial wastes are to a large extent contributing to pollution of water.
Discharging untreated industrial, single household and municipal wastes into water resources and
on land have facilitated the degradation of the environment and the members of the public are on
the threat of contracting health-related complication as a result of water pollution. Generally, untreated industrial, municipal and single household wastes interfere with the public health and the
environment at large (Postel, 2000).
Public sensitization on the need of preserving water resources should be enhanced in order
to try and curb water pollution as a result of municipal, industrial and single household
wastewaters. Once the people are educated on the importance of protecting water reservoirs then
avoiding water pollution and environmental degradation will be avoided. It is predicted that in the
near future, the adversities associated with water pollution and environmental degradation will be
so dire to the extent that, competition for the limited water resources among the members of the
public would be inevitable. In order to prevent future predicaments, therefore, education is vital
and is something that the relevant authorities should enforce among the population of a given
geographical location (Postel, 2000). The people who are worst hit by the predicament of water
scarcity can be educated on how to use the little they have, and water recycling should be enforced
CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT
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so as the people can embrace that. Water recycling from the constructed wetland treatment system
for industrial, municipal and single household wastewaters saves money among the population
struggling with the scarcity of water. Improving farming practices and the sewerage system should
be encouraged in order to avoid the issue of water scarcity from escalating any further. There are
organizations globally that encourage clean water initiatives in regions facing water scarcity. Advance water conservation technologies are initiatives designed to help in the water conservation
strategies globally. Despite the existence of organizations and support groups that encourage the
conservation of water, more world population should be reached in order to enable them to conserve water better. Human lives can be saved if money and effort are integrated into the water
conservation process. The strategy of conserving water not only benefits the society but also benefits water utilities and the environment as well.
Sustainability is a concept that can be integrated into human activities as well as the entire
human society (Praewa, 2017). Once human activities are less sustainable then there would be
adverse effects on the ecosystem which is crucial for sustenance and support of human life. Modern approaches have been designed to integrate sustainability, environmental ethics and the participation of public efforts in coming up with developmental projects in the society. Some world
communities are exhausting the little water resources that they have and as a result, water recycling
and conservation would be an ideal approach to help deal with such an adversity.
In most cases, known and unknown water constituents are added in the public water which
is used for commercial, domestic and even industrial use and as a result of the constituents addition, the public water ends up to be municipal, single household and industrial wastewaters. Construction of a sustainable wetland for wasteland treatment is an approach for municipal, single
CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT
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household and industrial wastewaters, which would best act as a basis for water reclamation and
reuse in most sustainable water resources management programs across the globe (Praewa, 2017).
Constructed wetlands (CW) are engineered and managed wetland systems that are increasingly
receiving worldwide attention for wastewater treatment and reclamation. They are systems that
naturally occur pollutant removing process mediated by complex interactions between water,
soil/gravel media , vegetation and their associated microbial assemblages and the environment to
improve water quality in a sustainable way. CW are designed to exploit the physical, chemical,
and biological treatment processes that occur in wetlands and provide for the reduction in organic material, total suspended solids, nutrients, biological oxygen demand, metals and
pathogenic organisms. Constructed wetlands are cost-effective and easily operated and maintained, and they have a strong potential for application in households, municipal and industries.
Limitations of Constructed Wetlands
Just like any other new municipal, industrial and municipal wastewater approach, the Constructed Wetlands systems for municipal, industrial and single household wastewaters have limitations of their own that undermine their effectiveness in the landscape. They make use of larger
pieces of land unlike other conventional wastewater systems used for the same purpose. Therefore
the approach would only be suitable in places where land is available in large quantities and at
very affordable rates. In this case because of the economic deficits it has, it is not a cost-friendly
approach to those people who have no large tracts of land or have no money to buy more land for
the construction of the wetlands; and hence in some case the Constructed Wetland system is too
much a task because of its expensive nature (Jhansi, & Mishra, 2013). . Since biological components are in most cases sensitive in nature to chemical, then any water surges would definitely
undermine the effectiveness of water treatment. As much as the wetlands are designed in a way
CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT
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that can survive in very minimal amounts of water, they cannot survive completely in a dry area
or rather they are not engineered to survive in trying circumstances. Very cold weather conditions
do undermine the effectiveness of the wetland system and high temperatures that may come as a
result of dry spells and drought, affect the effectiveness of the system too. Conversely, heavy rains
also affect the effectiveness of the constructed wetland systems most especially during the spring
season. The system is susceptible to the many changing weather patterns and therefore their effectiveness in the treatment process for municipal, industrial and single household wastewaters is
gradually undermined (Crawford, & Sandino, 2010).
The use of constructed wetland systems for municipal, industrial and single household
wastewaters is a relatively new concept and for this reason, the technology which supposedly can
be used to enhance its effectiveness is underdeveloped. Some ecological and environmental critiques argue that more should be done in order to attain fully effectiveness of the industrial, municipal and single household constructed design system.
Problem Statement
Many developing countries are faced with the challenge of industrial, municipal and single
household wastewater management because they have problems finding low-cost wastewater management technologies that can be used in the application of producing the most effective effluents
in order to meet single household, municipal and industrial functions. Wastewater management
holds the sole purpose of preventing the spread of diseases and infections. Nutrients recovery,
water reclamation, and reuse as well as conserving water resources are other wastewater management goals that most world organizations are trying to achieve. A shift from conventional
CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT
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wastewater management to more sustainable wastewater management should be embraced globally (Praewa, 2017).
This is because once the shift has been achieved then there would be conservation of water
and environmental resources and this is the overall goal of many wastewater treatment systems. In
this sense, this report is intents to make a full analysis and assessment of the constructed wetlands
systems in enhancing the quality and effectiveness of wastewaters and the associated environmental risks and threats that may come to light as a result of wetlands. The effluents and discharges
that come as a result of water pollution should be handled well so as not to spread diseases and
infections to the members of the public. There are so many hazardous effects of the water pollution
to the environment and to the general health of individuals. Mosquitoes breed well in stagnant
polluted water bodies, and as a result, the people might be at a higher risk of contracting malaria,
which is a deadly disease if not treated most especially in infants and children under the age of
five years. Some wastewater systems have the tendency of clogging and overflowing on surfaces
(Praewa, 2017). Constructed wetlands, unlike other conventional wastewater systems, utilize huge
pieces of land which can be costly sometimes.
Objectives
Design of Constructed Wetland for municipal and industrial applications:
This study discusses the design, performance, percentage removal and water balance of assorted
designs of the constructed wetlands treatment system for the use of treating wastewater.
1. Review of Constructed Wetland designs for single households â?? onsite wastewater treatment,
influent/effluent quality, different designs, reuse criteria, examples – case studies
CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT
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2. Review of Constructed Wetland designs for municipal wastewater â?? influent/effluent quality,
different designs, reuse criteria, examples â?? case studies
3. Review of Constructed Wetland designs for the oil and gas industry â?? influent/effluent quality,
designs, reuse criteria, examples – case studies
Literature Review
Domestic , Municipal and Industrial Wastewater
In this time and age, the issue of municipal, industrial and single household wastewater is
of great concern because it causes severe environmental problems to the environment and it also
affects people in terms of their health. Municipal, industrial and household wastewaters are environmental related issues whose negative impacts affect, all living organisms, whether itâ??s animals,
human beings or the environment. Studies have approximated that wastewater is exactly 99% water while the remaining 1% is a mixture and combination of suspended, dissolved organic solids,
detergents and also a mixture of chemicals (Secretariat, 2014). A single household, municipal and
industrial wastes are types of wastewaters.
Sewage� is one kind of wastewater, household wastes from toilets, kitchen sinks, and
showers are constituents of sewage and are disposed of via sewers. Municipal wastewaters commercial inputs range from photofinishing shops, restaurants, and car washes as well as bars recreational facilities (Secretariat, 2014). Frequently, pretreated industrial wastewaters constitute the
municipal wastewaters flow. A wide variety of process and facilities that consists of Plastic manufacturing wastes, pulp, petroleum refineries and food processing , results in the formation of industrial wastewaters.
CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT
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According to Secretariat (2014), different types of wastewaters (single household, municipal and industrial) have varying chemical compositions, for instance, pathogens, bacteria, and
nutrients. Wastewaters untreated components cab be organized in three categories which include
physical, biological and chemical components. Solid and inorganic constituents in the wastewaters
are what comprise the physical components. Biological components in wastewaters are made up
of bacteria, viruses, protozoa and other pathogens in the wastewaters. Lastly, chemical components
are made up of dissolved and organic matters as well as nutrients and metals which in most cases
are heavy metals.
In rare cases, industrial, municipal and single household wastewaters might contain reusable resources, for example, carbon, water, and other nutrients which could be recovered or reused
in other cases. For effective effluent regulatory standards to be met and be satisfactory then, the
wastewater will need to be treated in order to get rid of all water pollutants which might be found
in the municipal, industrial and single household wastewaters and should undergo appropriate
treatment (Crawford, & Sandino, 2010). According to Crawford & Sandino (2010), the wastewater
treatment process should be focused on the recovery of resources so as to be self-sustaining.
Water engineers and scientists have been on the edge trying to figure out the most appropriate technologies which would be embraced to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of treatment systems are achieved and all this has been attributed to the critical issues which are exhibited
in the wastewaters. The most known and basic systems of single household, municipal and industrial wastewaters treatment are integrated into the reduction of organic water compounds and the
suspension of solids so as to attain the needed effluent regulatory standards. With noticeable progression in the advancement of new technologies by water engineers and environmental scientists,
CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT
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a wastewater treatment approach has been developed in order to help in the absorption and removal
of dissolved toxic substances and organic matter from the wastewaters.
Advancement in the scientific knowledge and consciousness about the environment and
water bodies have given rise to new and improved technologies and treatment systems as well
which are quite helpful in curbing pollution in wastewaters and also reduce the energy used in the
recycling of the industrial, single household and municipal wastewaters. Therefore, while selecting
the appropriate technology to help in solving the wastewater problem, great care and caution
should be considered. Generally, there are two types of wastewater treatment systems and they are
the conventional wastewater treatment and the sustainably constructed wetlands treatment system.
Conventional Wastewater Treatment
Conventional Wastewater Treatment Process
Conventional wastewater treatment process is made up of physical, chemical and biological processes. This treatment process encompasses three stages which are referred to as the primary, secondary and tertiary treatment.
Primary Treatment
This treatment is used in the removal and the separation of inorganic materials as well as
solids which would otherwise clog and destroy water pipes. This type of treatment entails screening, grit removal, and sedimentation. Screens in this treatment are used to get rid of large debris
which includes plastic and cans. Grit chamber system is used to remove and settle sand and gravel.
According to Nelson et al (2007), the wastewater is moved into the quiescent basin, with a temporary retention, and then eventually heavy solids settle at the bottom of the basin while lighter solids,
grease as well as oil move to the upper surface of the quiescent basin. Finally, skimming and
sedimentation processes are used to both the settled and floating pollutants in the wastewaters then
CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT
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the liquid which remains is transferred and discharged so as to pass through the secondary treatment. 50% of the total suspended solids, 30%- 40% of BOD are gotten rid of in this stage (Nelson
et al, 2007).
Secondary Treatment
Dissolved and biological matters are removed by use of secondary treatment. According to
Nelson et al (2007), 90% of organic matter in the wastewater is removed through biological treatment process at this stage. Attached growth processes and suspended growth process are the best
two suitable conventional methods used in the secondary treatment.
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