People of Egyptian Heritage. People of Filipino Heritage.

Hey due on Friday before 12pm People of Filipino Heritage.Read chapter 13 and 28 of the class textbook and review the attached PowerPoint presentations. Read chapter 28 in Davis Plus Online Website. Once done, write an essay discussing the health beliefs of both heritages and if there is any similarity in both culture beliefs. Also, discuss how their beliefs influence the delivery of evidence-based healthcare focusing on the nursing care. As stated in the course syllabus present your assignment in an APA format, word document, Arial 12 font attached to the forum in the discussion tab of the blackboard titled “Week 6 essay”. Your assignment must have a minimum of 700 words, 3 evidence-based references no older than 5 years (excluding the class the class textbook, You must post two replies to any of your peers sustained with the proper references.
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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian American Culture
Larry Purnell, PhD, RN, FAAN
Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Overview/Heritage
â?ª The Egyptian people have a strong sense of identity
with their country and demonstrate pride in coming
from such an old civilization.
â?ª The Arab conquest of Egypt around 641 AD spread
the Islamic and Arabic culture among the Egyptians.
â?ª This long history and the diversity of populations
have influenced the value systems, beliefs, and
explanatory frameworks Egyptians use in their daily
lives.
Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Overview/Heritage
â?ª More than 1 million people of Egyptian
ancestry live in the United States.
â?ª The highest concentrations are in New York,
Los Angeles, Washington, DC; Chicago, and
San Francisco.
Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Communication
â?ª The dominant language of Egyptians is Arabic.
â?ª The written Arabic language is the same in all
Arab countries, but spoken Arabic is dialectical
and does not necessarily follow proper Arabic
grammar.
â?ª For Egyptians in the United States, English is the
language of communication in business and
contact with American society.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Communication
â?ª Respect is expected when speaking with
those who are older or in higher social
positions.
â?ª Politeness, adab, is related to what is
appropriate, expected, and socially
sanctioned.
â?ª Truth and reality may be sacrificed for what is
appropriate and polite.
â?ª Sharing negative news directly or asking for
Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Communication
â?ª Egyptians tend to be in touch with their inner
feelings and are highly expressive of them.
â?ª Egyptians tend to share problems and the
most minute details about their lives with
their trusted circle of insiders.
â?ª Because their personal space tends to be
small, Egyptians stand and sit very close to
each other.
Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Communication
â?ª Men, whether strangers or acquaintances, touch
each other.
â?ª Similarly, it is acceptable for women to touch each
other.
â?ª Women tend to keep male friends as far away as
male strangers.
â?ª Traditionally, it is unacceptable for women and men
to touch each other unless they are close family
members.
Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Communication
â?ª Touch between the sexes is accepted in
private and only between husbands and
wives, parents and children, and adult
brothers and sisters.
â?ª Devout Muslim men and women do not touch
each other, even a handshake is not practiced.
In these situations, a nod of the head
substitutes for a physical greeting.
Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Communication
â?ª Egyptians speak with their mouth, face, hands, and
their entire bodies communicating the meaning of
their language.
â?ª Their facial expressions are mirrors of their internal
processes and reflections of their inner evaluations
of their situations. A wide-eyed gaze to a child
means â??stop it now.â? A wink to an adult means
â??watch what you are saying.â?
Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Communication
â?ª Egyptians think of those who do not maintain
eye contact or who have shifty eye contact as
people who should not be trusted.
â?ª Among the more traditional, women and
men who are strangers may avoid eye contact
out of modesty and respect for religious
rules.
Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Communication
â?ª Most older Egyptians cherish the past, whereas most
younger Egyptians live in the present.
â?ª Social time takes a high priority, and engagements
are not concluded because of other scheduled
appointments; therefore, guests are expected to
arrive 1 to 2 hours late.
â?ª However, they are punctual for business
engagements and meetings.
Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Communication
â?ª Children are given a first name; the fatherâ??s first name
is used as the middle name; the last name is the family
name. A person is called formally by the first name,
such as Mr. William.
â?ª Respect is demonstrated in the use of titles. Older
people should never be called by their first name
without an adjective or title.
â?ª The accepted U.S. custom of addressing clients by their
first name may be insulting to Egyptians.
Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Family Roles and
Organization
â?ª The demands of life on immigrants and nuclear
families promote sharing responsibilities and
decision-making.
â?ª To preserve traditional roles that contribute to a
more egalitarian family organization, family roles
change considerably after immigration.
â?ª The absence of an extended family results in
greater fluidity in roles and participation in all family
matters.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Family Roles and
Organization
â?ª Social status is gained through professional
accomplishments, financial success, and
involvement in Egyptian community affairs.
â?ª Children are treasured in the present and viewed
as security for their parentsâ?? future. During their
early years, they are expected to be studious
and goal-oriented, respectful, and loyal to the
family.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Family Roles and
Organization
â?ª When children become adults, they are
expected to take care of their elderly parents.
â?ª Religious beliefs and teachings forbid
premarital sex and adultery for both Egyptian
Muslims and Christians.
â?ª The greatest calamity that may happen in an
Egyptian household is to have a daughter lose
her virginity before marriage.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Family Roles and
Organization
â?ª This fear stems from a potential lack of
marriageability of the daughter, loss of face for
the father, and gossip within the community.
â?ª Egyptian children are expected to marry
Egyptians. However, because many secondgeneration Egyptian Americans do not reside in
areas with an abundance of Egyptians, crosscultural marriages are becoming more common.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Family Roles and
Organization
â?ª As Egyptians grow older, they are treated with
gentleness and are never made to believe that
their usefulness is limited because of retirement.
â?ª Their children and extended families are
obligated to care for them.
â?ª Women gain status with age and with
childbearing.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Family Roles and
Organization
â?ª Many older people have a morbid fear of being
forced to move into a nursing home.
â?ª Many consider returning to their home country
to avoid the humiliation of aging in America.
â?ª Divorce is not considered a stigma but an
unfortunate situation and one in which the
children pay the greatest price.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Family Roles and
Organization
â?ª Communal and same-sex families are a concept
that does not exist in Egyptian societies.
â?ª Same-sex relationships are rarely disclosed.
â?ª To be gay or lesbian is considered immoral and is
not accepted by any Arab or Middle Eastern
religions.
â?ª To discover a gay son or lesbian daughter is akin
to a catastrophic event for Egyptian Americans.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
ClickerCheck
An older Egyptian man comes to the Emergency
Department with acute abdominal pain. He is
unable to speak English. What language will you
request from the language line?
a. Spanish.
b. Arabic.
c. Farsi.
d. Urdu.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Correct Answer
Correct answer: B
Although the patientâ??s language is not know at this
point, most Egyptians speak Arabic.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Workforce Issues
â?ª Egyptian expect detailed and careful explanation
of all aspects of their job.
â?ª Egyptians are inclined to an oral tradition;
therefore, the need to document in writing what
can be shared verbally seems foreign to Egyptian
American nurses.
â?ª Egyptians are usually punctual and follow work
rules and procedures.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Workforce Issues
â?ª For Egyptians, the work environment is their
social environment.
â?ª The emphasis on privacy and separating work
and social life expected in American work
settings seems artificial to Egyptian Americans.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Biocultural Ecology
â?ª Most Egyptians have olive skin tones; some are
fair-skinned; and others are dark-skinned.
â?ª Northern Egyptians exhibit a fairer complexion
than most other Egyptians.
â?ª Southern Egyptians (Nubians) are generally
black, with very fine facial features.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Biocultural Ecology
â?ª Egyptians health concerns, primarily from
environmental cause from the Nile and lifestyles
include schistosomiasis, filariasis, trachoma,
typhoid and paratyphoid fevers, streptococcal
disease, rheumatic fever, tuberculosis,
cardiovascular disease, and thalassemia.
â?ª Some evidence indicates that Egyptians are
poor metabolizers of beta blockers.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian High-Risk Health Behaviors
â?ª Although some Egyptian Americans may
overindulge in alcohol, the teachings of Islam
prohibit its use.
â?ª Many who drink alcohol tend to do so socially
and in limited quantities.
â?ª Exercise is not part of the daily lives among most
Egyptians in America.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian High-Risk Health Behaviors
â?ª Overeating food delicacies that are high in fat,
sodium, and sugar; sedentary lifestyles; and an
entertainment style based on eating contribute to
obesity and immobility.
â?ª Egyptians are at risk for stomach and intestinal
problems, which include heartburn, flatulence,
constipation, hemorrhoids, and fecal impaction.
These conditions result from limited roughage,
lack of fluids, and rapid consumption of food.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian High-Risk Health Behaviors
â?ª Pap smears and mammograms tend to be new
preventive health practices for Egyptians.
â?ª Pap smears for unmarried women are
discouraged and are considered totally
unacceptable in unmarried females due to the
value of virginity until marriage.
â?ª Gynecologic examinations are given only to
married women, usually during the check-up for
a first pregnancy.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Nutrition
â?ª Food is an important component of Egyptian
social life and represents friendship, generosity,
and nurturing.
â?ª The more food a person eats, the greater the
potential expectation for health.
â?ª Thus, children tend to be overfed. Food is also
associated with the ability of the head of the
family to provide for family members.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Nutrition
â?ª Egyptians prefer not to drink water or fluids with
meals because they believe that fluid displaces
the volume that could be used for food,
decreasing their appetite for solid nutrients.
â?ª Some believe that fluids dilute the stomach
â??juices,â? making digestion difficult and causing
indigestion.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Nutrition
â?ª Most Egyptians consider meat dishes as main
dishes, complemented by vegetables and rice.
â?ª Preferred meats are lamb, chicken, beef, and veal.
â?ª They drink strong tea with hot milk or mint leaves
with several teaspoons of sugar several times a
day. Those who prefer tea without milk drink it with
mint leaves.
â?ª Coffee, a habit acquired from Turkish rule is thick,
strong, and served in small demitasse cups with or
without sugar.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Nutrition
â?ª Hostesses insist on giving guests excessive
amounts of food and act insulted if guests
refuse the food.
â?ª Those who understand the ritual may insist on
refusal or may take the food and not eat it.
â?ª Completely emptying the plate may be seen as
an indication that the guest did not have
enough to eat.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Nutrition
â?ª Whether in Egypt or in America, devout
Muslims do not consume pork or drink alcohol.
â?ª Egyptians do not mix hot and cold or sweet and
sour foods at the same meal.
â?ª Egyptian Christians fast for a varied number of
days for several major religious celebrations.
For them, fasting constitutes not eating any
animal products.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Nutrition
â?ª Many rituals are revived during the month of
Ramadan.
â?ª Fasting during Ramadan precludes taking
anything by mouth or intravenously and
abstaining from sexual activities during the day.
â?ª Most Egyptian Muslims eat only well-cooked
meat and do not touch rare meat.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Pregnancy and
Childbearing Practices
â?ª Although Egyptians in America may practice
family planning and birth control, these practices
are not used before conceiving the first child.
â?ª A couple is not complete until they have a child.
â?ª Pregnancy brings women a sense of security and
their husbandsâ?? and in-lawsâ?? respect.
â?ª Giving birth, particularly to a son, considerably
strengthens the status and power of women.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
ClickerCheck
A genetic condition common among Egyptians is
a. Tuberculosis
b. Filarisis.
c. Thalassemia
d. Hemophilia.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Correct Answer
Correct answer: C
Thalassemia is a common genetic condition among
Egyptians. Filarisis and tuberculosis are not
genetic.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Pregnancy and
Childbearing Practices
â?ª Women are expected to curtail physical
activities during pregnancy for fear of
miscarriage.
â?ª Women are also advised to eat more because
they are feeding two.
â?ª Some women have waham (strong cravings) for
certain foods. If these foods are not consumed,
babies may be born with the imprint of the
needed foods.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Pregnancy and
Childbearing Practices
â?ª When a woman goes into labor with only her husband in
attendance, it is considered an emergency.
â?ª Acculturated Egyptian men want to be included in the
birthing experience, which may offend Egyptian
newcomers.
â?ª The cold and hot theory for health and illness may prevent
women from bathing during the postpartum period.
Bathing or hair-washing could expose them to colds and
chills.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Pregnancy and
Childbearing Practices
â?ª The postpartum period lasts 40 days during
which new mothers are expected to rest, eat
well, be confined to the house with their babies,
and not engage in any sexual activities.
â?ª They are usually cared for by family members
and are not expected to have any demands put
on them. Chicken and chicken soup help
women during their postpartum transition.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Death Rituals
â?ª Most Egyptians react vigorously and dramatically
to the loss of a family member, expressing their
grief outwardly.
â?ª Wailing and public crying occur on first learning
of death.
â?ª This public reaction is an expected
demonstration of their grief for the deceased.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Death Rituals
â?ª Older people speak calmly about their own
impending death.
â?ª Egyptians with a strong religious foundation do
not fear the nearness of death; they consider it a
journey to another world that is believed to be
better.
â?ª Egyptian Muslims and Christians believe in an
afterlife and expect rewards for good deeds
accomplished in their first life.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Death Rituals
â?ª Among Muslims, Islam calls for burial of the
deceased as soon as possible.
â?ª The burial ritual includes cleaning the body and
wrapping it in a white cotton wrap.
â?ª Verses from the Qurâ??an are read, and a special
prayer is recited at the mosque before the body
is buried underground in a simple tomb.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Spirituality
â?ª On the night of the burial, friends and family gather to give
their condolences and respect to the grieving family.
â?ª Some Muslim families insist on having the deceased
buried in Egypt.
â?ª Forty days after the burial, another mourning ritual takes
place in the home of the deceasedâ??s family. Family
members listen while passages from the Qurâ??an are read
by a religious man to console the family.
â?ª A ritual also takes place on the anniversary of the death.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Spirituality
â?ª Prayers, even for the nondevout Muslim or
Christian, are significant during times of illness.
â?ª Egyptians may bring the Qurâ??an or their Bible to
their hospital beds and usually put it under the
pillow or on the bedside table.
â?ª Prayers may be recited by the individual, in
groups for Muslims, or in religious settings such
as mosques or churches.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Spirituality
â?ª Muslims who can afford the expense and are in
good health make the pilgrimage to Mecca
sometime during their lifetime.
â?ª The journey is thought to provide Muslims with
a source of inner fulfillment.
â?ª Before praying, Muslims must engage in a
purification ritual, which consists of washing
every exposed body part.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Spirituality
â?ª Prayer, required five times daily, consists of
elaborate bending and kneeling movements in
systematic ways, increasing a personâ??s range of
movements, limbering stretches, and meditative
poses.
â?ª Religion and prayers are believed to provide
protection from illnesses.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Egyptian Health-care Practices
â?ª Egyptian health care is influenced by ancient
Greek, or unani, medicine, and by humoral
systems.
â?ª The principles behind the humoral system are
based on dividing many aspects of life into four:
the year into four seasons; mat …
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