Philosophy Nature of Arguments

I need help with this Philosophy assignment, please see attachments and please follow the quiz Instructions. Phil 101 (Q1) file is the one you should solve.
quiz_instructions.png

phil_101_q1_.doc

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Philosophy Nature of Arguments
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

phl101_arg_.pdf

nature_of_arguments_longerversion_.pdf

nature_of_arguments_shorterversion_.pdf

Unformatted Attachment Preview

PHL101:
Summer 2017
First Quiz:
Test the deductive validity of the following arguments: If you find that the arguments are
deductively valid, then discuss their corresponding valid pattern. If you find them to be
deductively invalid, then discuss why they are deductively invalid. Supply a missing premise if
and when you think that this is right (not in the moral sense) thing to do.
I. All whales are mammals.
All mammals have lungs.
Therefore, all whales have lungs.
II. If I owned all the gold in Fort Knox, then I would be wealthy.
I do own all the gold in Fort Knox.
Therefore, I am wealthy.
III. If I owned all the gold in Fort Knox, then I would be wealthy.
I am wealthy.
Therefore, I own all the gold in Fort Knox.
IV. I think. Therefore, I am.
Basic Deductively Yalid Argument Pattet’ns
I. t. If p, ttren q
l. If it iains, rhen the ground will
2.p
be wet.
2. It raius.
Therefore,
Theref,ore,
3.q
3. The ground will be wet, [1
II. 1. If p, then
?r.
l. If John’ laughs, then Marry
q
Not q
Therefore,
smilos.
3;
It is not the cflss that Marry
srnilesr
Thcreforp,
.
3: Not p
3. It is not the case that John
laughs.
III.
1. Eirher p or q
?.,Not q
1..
t t& 2l
Either the snoopy barks or
Idr. Brown sleeps.
2. It is not the Ltse that Mr.
Therefore,
3.p
Therefore,
3. The snoopy barks. [l
IV.
.’
1, If p,
– then q
Z, If q, then r
Ttrerefore
3.
will.be wet.
,
?. If the ground is wet, then I
I cannor play golf.
If p, then r.
v. 1p
.
If p, then
eU
. 1, If it rains, then the ground
Therefore,
3, If it r&ins, then
play golf. [ 1&Z]
Z.
&
I cnnnot
l, Idrs Dunkelhowling own a
q
Ford.
3, [f q, then r
2. If }drs. ” ” rr*t
owns
Ford, then she can expect
it
‘I-‘!
Therefore,
4. r.
many ysars of driving
3

pleasure,
. [f ]r[rS. rt rr tr r,r {r tt r*rr tt ‘t ci.l,ll
ex.pect meny year$ ui
driv ing pleuiure , r.herr s h*
will suffer from interiorii
complex.
21
Therefore,
(4) ly{rs. ” t’rr tr r*r * ‘r tr will
suffer from inferioriry
complsx. [1,2&3J
YI ].. All
2.’x
A’s are Fs
i$ an
A
Therefore,
3. xisariF
vU.
1.
Ali A’s are ars F
2. AII F’s are C
Therefore,
3. AII A’s ars G
l.Man is il1ort8l.
?, Idr. x’is & ffiflIt

:
Therefore,
3, hdr. x is rnortal. [1&2]
1. All dogs ars animal.
2, AU animals
Therefore
3.
rr.re
mo*al.
,
Al[ dogs are mortal.
Recail that, in a deductivety valid’ argument, it rnus[ be case that that, if all
the ptemises arc. true, then’the conchlsion ii rruffii.,-ir, i-trr ttruth of the
guarantees the truth of the conclusion. An argpment. is never said
Pltflilt_l
to De $qg or false, rather it is described as, valid or
inviiia and or srr.png
that argument
is
simpifra$d
[or-:ys*). Moreover,’we
is no indication that ir
-nied
argument;
stiu
to
ossrsi
ihe
argu*”nt
for the u’uth of its
it–ifl9″a that is, we
pr9mrses,
to
determine
whether
dr not the argument is
.need
strong. A strong argument is . good-*gr*iri.
PHIL 110:00lH
Fall 2011
Problems of Good & Evil
Nature ofArguments (Longer Notes)
Instructor: Prasanta S. Bandyopadhyay
Department of History & Philosophy
Montana State University
Bozeman, MT 59717
FIRST LECTURE ON CRITICAL REASONING
III.
Introduction to philosophic method:
a”l-guments ~
(A
~= nature and role of 2rgumen~5 j,n prlilosc’ph·~/~
1) QUESTION:
D I SC~USS.
–2
set of re2sons (or premises) given in support
of some claim which is said to be the conclusion
QUESTION:
the point
of
-=-.rg’-lment?
DISCUSS.
–to persuade someone to believe some claim;
–to persuade someone to do something;
–t~ establish the truth concerning some matter;
–to persuade oneself or to get oneself in a
position to believe the truth on some matter.
[t:~is last goal
IS the main focus of our attention
in this course]
(])
types o~ argument~ (rational versus rhetorical persuasion).
D~fferent
CONSIDER th.;? fc 11 cJ~’>Ii “ng
in
i~,o¥t
‘i
support
t~~jC;
,;,rguments,
each
of the claim that one should
given
recycle
?-G~ A,”~~~e,-:
AF:GUMENT #:() 1 :
2.;-CiJ.nc! ”
:~
makes good. economic sense
extend the useful life of
the soaring costs of solid
SInce
ecological sense,
cuts
-::’)’;-.:::·st:-e::::·:”)’:·’ce~),
all
sense
for cities~ since recycling
landfills and will help
F:ecyc 1 i ;lg
waste disposal.
i t significantly slows
the
on be :1-·1 the .3i’l- 2.nd
dC,l’JD
~’Jater
dwindl~.. nl;.
pollutic1i’j
~S’~QCi2t~=
w~,th paper production and uses far
less
energy
(64%
less
-02;-~·
is
needed
to produce recycled
pape~
products).
nelping
ease pressures on ·fuel e>:ploration and
prodllc·~iDn.
Finallv.
,r
makes good aesthe·tic sense,
since recycled
paper
prGdltct~
~-e virtually indistingu~shible from products made with
vl~gin
~’Jc’8d pulp and these help save our forests and
wilderness
”;:””-;”::::’3.;::.
,”:-,:-:-:
the ugl”/ :::;Ci:H-S of c 1 e.,::.x-cut lc.qgin’;l.
Ii-‘
sum,
then~
the
‘:D~~~
0f
recyclin~
pape~
2re
low and
the
benefits
sL:bst2n~=~.
I~ m~,~es G80d sense.
ARGUMENT :i:;:02:
great country hes f~ceri ~
to SOlV~ thE problem.
.:- 1 il–=’
~~~Ch2d
::= -::’ ]
…. ;…
J
‘,~
-:02~her
c1·”.=;; – ~
d .:;p C !:,2.} “1 So
‘·-i;:;:tiDn l.i.nited.
j I.. ‘.s t
h.~
.i.
.,;:. nc, t her
all
have
The problem
a.(:~,·)ng
the
posed
p ,- c’~: l.=:!ms
n’f us in America–ev9ry
b~
t.oJE ~ 1 -:
man~
‘â?¢â?¢.1’:,.
~.’~t·
.-:,.-,~
..
,i;
, ;
-‘r:.:
…-.,_.
i ·,-rp:
reSDllrces.
~ut
the inevitable d2mands of empire building
hav~
strained
E~en the resources of this grand nation and we now fac~
desper2te choices in the years ahead.
Together we must
for9~
ahead
tc ffieet the future with heads raised.
~e must be willi~q
to
go
t~at extra mile for the sake of our
children and
thei~
children~
we must seek to minimize our presence~ we must seek t~
reuse and recycle what we can and to restrict our consumption of
raw
m2ter~als so that cur great nation~
united under God,
may
forever shlne forth as a beacon to free people everywhere.
Wit~
our foreslght and restraint~ we can be sure that we will
always
be
e.1!!.~c1.s.·t. tt.~ £.~.§.ldt!..f’dl.·
(a)
QUESTION:
What
can
we say about
these
~1;gUiI~~!}·.~_s·~
~e.g. ~
the chal-actET of each
argument;
what
each argument accomplishes
and how it accomplishes it~ etc~)
DISCUSS.
[put the suggestions on the board]
[add the following to the board. i f not there]
(i) In argumen·t I:
–pertinent facts are
presented
that
bear directly on the issue of recycling;
–tt1E argument
persuades by giving facts
that concern the issue;
dispute the facts
2.nd
9 i ‘v’en
wonder
about
their
accuracy,
but
1:
correct they do support the conclusion;
–1;”8
–the
<:lrgument app~a.ls consequences of our actions; Cii) In argument 11: --an appeal is made sense as Americans; ~­ ,~ l.' --the argument persuades (if it does) hy a gener21 appeal, not directed at an~ sp~cific facts but by emotional appeal; argument raises claims (God-given) rights as ---the natu,-31 --the argument calls shapers Gf histor"y yet i-This swells us wlth sel·f-importance.) divide 3rquments of the 2b0Y~ int0 tWD --ra.1: ic:nall·'~~ ;" ', .. (ov~r-simplified) persu.as!v~ '.'.i l arguments rep:-esent~::: categories: 1 [I I o n IU ~ It! ~. ,m J ;'-' !,n ;~ $ ill ,~t' I.A 0' :. :[1 'I ~ f d 11 J :T i) 4 ~ ~' r, ·-t' ...) :T -T .-'f" '[1 ill '1 (I ill 🙂 .~'I' I'D " III ::r ,:-t- [1'1 ;". :T L ~. iTl tn HI :-i 1-1 ,~ n '11 , -tl -1'1 .-,. r d' :.:t··, '< 'T l---' n c: .'t' ;..' :-:i !O U'I C,l. â?¢. <: <: '~I ,ct L~J m ~r :t· "',I fll III n lJ .z C'J ;,,' ItI (1 1[1 i-I :_. ~j in j ,... ILl I :J n ~"I H !ll ,·t d- ....,. :.J lit -j ,â?¢â?¢ ~ ~.J' ::1 ,-to ,:-r -:1 1 c: ~J t,1 rll ". IfI ~,,, i-I .:i n 1.0 rn . i'jj fO [7 I"'" rt ill I'l:l ,..:. 0. ::i ,;T [,L~ In -" ~~=q :1 i .. , !~ (J I·t ',n -< fD ~:r.~~ iU ;;:. :r n lu I: ~. I~ m , m .'j n -'j Q C), ~~~Q 7 c: t:1. 1;:1 'I "(I â?¢. ~ I"~ ':1t~n o J '. !'.) 1'''1'' :~: ;':i ,-"-; 'ii .-t 'J.' ·I:! 1"" CL C d lil ~ , d- ~. :: o. it: IT ~, .... n (l In tn ill .'j !l.l n 'lJ ,n iD :; ,r :') W .n (0 < .;1'" ;-to C ~l -; ;}.1 0"" !(I < : :r n I ·'i f(I I ::-1- .~. ~ ~ -I, (I II -~ ~ 7 (I m "(J -/ (T ...) In ~ ., t", lil o m [. lfI ~m u~ â?¢... I d' --j :r -i C d· w~ ro ~ ~ ;-t·n f1 o In !A ~ (:1 ,;- III In ...I â?¢â?¢â?¢ ,0 '" 111 U'J -i ql 1".1 j[l 0 .,,' ..." :1l " !11 C 'l~· l~ ill .". ".., ~, Lli (>
~
A
j
rli
..”
.< , J: ('.1 !.l.:-,i fD 1< ]'". 10 :;:Id· , " (I d' r.:: o -i i: III 10 (>
,T
.-
!J.I
:1
,:..tf[1
~
~~
!!i
‘::J
~
“c,
~l
10
·~o
J
~
~ ~
&w
~
o
,
:3: :T
:::i
…. til
-‘
nl
fll
â?¢
;iJ
m
‘-1 :L
r
I:.
-:’,
m
< :t! i Ck ~I~ mlo Ol~ ~l~ I"'~ ..-t ('I" iT! I.i':l ~O j'j) . I,n Er-l~~' UIO ~r I!]I ::t- I~j- In I:J ._- I~,I ~j~ film mjc~ ~ 1~ -'; R' ~ll III m ..... ~ !ll " ill "'j rn o < , n :1 tn Q (1- Il 1 ("r !ll (: Iii ;::1 -i 0 TJ ;-." :~.- -. :i Q .:'; 1:'1 :r :: I,CI ill --I ,-t- ~ -0 ·"1 (I t~ ItI ~ 0 â?¢â?¢ rp -T I (.1 ::i ~~; ~:. In 0- ;~. t~_ ~~ :i ..... [1:1 1.15 ❓ 1-" ;l! .:1" (I ~ rt" -tl -i (I (I :r Ul , I-' ~ C! -t l II! riI -0 ::1 :r n tIl ~'t· .:t fD --j " :r 0 l-'. 0. - II "I 0 ilJ o ::r (11 f.ll In CT' in C" 11 c n -~ ,Ill I,ll ,.,. Ii) < Ul 1-" .-..:" ,". ~ ~, :i (I ~. d- fH -, 0. ~l :i if! n :i m !,:.1 11 t:L ::3 < ·1 .:C 1:: ill fLl ;t" ::r :~ ct' (II j '< 111"0 -- ._j ~. CL 1-" ,., Cl. I'~' ~t, :J" :11 :J" I'D 1,,-' f I I 0 l-" I ':-1" j I iii U .::: 1[1 I r" :i =l CL ~I m fli -tl III 111 '. :':i ;; ·_'1 ...- 11,1 ;-~ Q ('i -i fO ("1 "'::. g.. ~~ :~~" ~ l:l --< IU l :r 0: :"i 1 != .-. {ll ,t- 111 f11 :.:1 .... ::r J';: 0 m tu :T -ft ;~ cr 0, rtl ;..~.~;- .~. cr ::i H III n 0 !lJ 111 Z .. ill .;"t- ::i 1-" -j fJI rn m c :r !II ::i fTl 3 (.t- ({) :1 IU -l 1 !ll ;JJ C -i 1J]:f10-lI --I ~ iT! I'D iD .;-t. ~. f) :.,. ~ ,:1'" lli !:ti :":" :3 ct n "'1 10 jool' a. '. ·'~I (I n. â?¢â?¢1 d' !'- (l ::i t-,. ..... 3 m III I'll â?¢ n. :r -j ~" Ili r.,. cr ~ _I ~~ i.1l .T --I [1. itt !ll fll ,._' .... ._( :;'l :i '-' !_ iII til ,- rr:-o n ,"tc; :r If! ~,. ::i t-â?¢. ::1" CL til ,_';' "0 :::i ,: ~ti (T Ilt (I - 1-" -j -j t ItI ~!;. 0 I,D 3' ..... ill â?¢â?¢ -II fiI 111 )-'. !iI ro u ,-t- ..... m g. I-' :liW fl.1 < n . Q :.T d) m ..... :3 ([l i: 0 cto ;[ ~. .;" "~ -;. iii ('; ~: -' ('I- ft' (I '0 ..... :1 :i :J ,:-,.. to ;'£. :'T It: II! -t; 0 11 '..L -0 IT! ..... y:o m ::i r.: -I ~: -'. < " .( .I. ~, If! :j jlI UJ I-' .j ,. iT III ("I" In ~. ift!J.1::i"< :i 07T (I IT :::l rn " n (0 to 0.1 :i (I n 0 do3 ....,. 'D 0. ::: ItI I !ll d' :r n !ll 111 cr J :<;_. 1 q.l HI/-'. t:J i !Ji I[! :J "i d· ~. C!. 0. UJ U.J Cl. iII "-' -.::r .:::.: I::! :r .... ' ':':"" -tj ,..t- ·-~'l 1') W ;/:1 .... ·1 "< ~~ ~;' rn lU I t'1 C G!,f!T~::i ::r ':"i" ,:-1 iD.:t ,... ::i ,_. ItJ ~-: 1 '11 til ~~ f'" Ii.I I !JI [) .:t· :.; U1::i .,< !J.l . :'~I ~) in ;-_. ::! ::'. uJ 1 :1' It! '! [I '" '-<" l ,... ::r :; III ~r ,;- . rn -l :;p' I~ Q.ll Ci C f. :"i -'.- -I ::i "<. ul n ('l 1--' ·0 3 IT: :E I!I til 1"" Ul 1--' !]; II IJJ -' card::! b0th NO","J ',lhat <'Iould true and false? we say? NO. Th sentence difficulties l~ to m2' ke hie ·need ~ talki·~ in ahout truth values. [on trar6parencyJ A ph~lsical sentence is a token of SOf!H? ·:;':d-t--f'cn- e}~.;.mp le, as,:,,,,: of pencil o~ chalk marks, or a string of sounds--that may be usac to Express a number of distinct stateme!lts (or propositions). A statement (or proposition) is tha fully detailed wt,at 1S ~~prEssed (more or less completely) b/ sentence. CClntent 0": dec l.=;d-a t i /~ Notice that the vEry same sentence may be use~ to Express a variety of different statements: e.g.~ pass around a card with "I feel all warm and happy inside" written on i t . For each o~ US~ it would express a different statement. QUESTION: Why is this distinction important t~· us concerning arguments and cri·tical reasoning? DISCLJSS~ --We can imagine having an contains the following claim: "Eden is par.:?dise." th2.t One person may claim it true~ another falsebut they may U~ thinking of differe~t statements made by this one sentence. --the biblical Eden; --Ed~n, NY (home of the k3Z00). *Until at the core of the the argument~ will see a further importa~t for this distinction in what lies ahe2d (in the Objective Theory of Truth). st~itement~: "·.Ji 11 be no resolving (b) [on trans~ "The Objective Theory of Truth." The i=iO .JE·-::: ~ i ve :·h-?::';-·:.~· -::4--f T"~uth (Cit) ·following three compr,nnnts: (i) Corresp~ndence Principle (CP' â?¢ l ! ) One ? valiJe :OTV)~ J ',:l]j,) The (OTT) ~f Objecti",e ~ill 2rg~ment rru~~h th~ F'··-iric!Dle. serve as tr!9 platform ~I:,r the meth~'­ that w~~]l use to wor~ thrDL';~ an2]ysi~ r:,:- ,) b ). ,:;, '";'15 :.':::'~I pn,-: 1 ..- - r. 3.tE·:'·'- til Correspondence Pr~l,cip]= (CP) We just agreed th2t are the is statements i~ e}:pres~ed by declarAtive of truth val.ue. What is it that maKes a be~l-ers Q"JEST I ON: ---liThe ---';The state!nen·t the a'ilk 1 C'S-E:1U'!- ?:':r-: t i go h.3.d P l',-:k DI:;CUS;3. A st""r:-~"" ~.l..L-'<

GradeAcers
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Work with Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & Confidential

We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:
$0.00

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.

Essays

Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.

Admissions

Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.

Reviews

Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.

Reviews

Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.

Order your essay today and save 15% with the discount code DISCOUNT15