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class textbook chapter 16an essay is not needed. use link of textbook or powerpoint attachment as a reference.Are community health workers viewed as “change agents” in their communities today? Discuss and describe ways in which they can be “community change agents”…Recalling the “communities” that we have focused on ( day care centers, Senior Day Centers, residential addiction rehab programs, programs for adolescents/young adults, programs, etc.) how can community health workers effect positive, life-saving practices in these communities? Keep in mind that all the above-mentioned communities, are also “work places” for those who provide daily services to the populations that reside there and/or attend the site to receive services. Describe the ways public health, health care, and other organizations (for profit & non-profit) can work together or individually to positively impact the health of an entire community.

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Chapter 16
Safety and Health in
the Workplace
Objective: To examine work-related injuries and
diseases as well as legislative efforts aimed at
protecting workers, and to look at some of the
resources for reducing the number and seriousness of
workplace injuries and diseases in our communities.
â??Choose a job you love, and you will never have to work a day in your
– Confucius
Scope of the Problem
â?¢ Globally, each year:
â?¢ ~317 million nonfatal occupational injuries
â?¢ 321,000 fatal injuries
â?¢ Fewer than 11 workers die each day in U.S. from
injury sustained at work
â?¢ After home, Americans spend most time at work â?? 5/6
days per week, 8 hrs per day
â?¢ Fatalities have declined significantly over the past 85
years â?? but fatalities still occurâ?¦even years after the
initial injury
â?¢ Occupational disease â?? an abnormal condition, other than an
occupational injury, caused by an exposure to environmental
factors associated with employment
â?¢ Occupational illness â?? conditions that arise from poisonings
(heavy metals, toxic gases, pesticides etc.) and infections and
result in ~ 1.18 million cases of diseases and days lost from
work â?? not including long-term latent illnesses, which are
often difficult to connect to the workplace and are
â?¢ Occupational injury â?? an injury that results from exposure to
a single incident in the workplace environment
Importance of Occupational Safety and Health to
the Community
â?¢ Industry is a subset of the larger community â?? the
population of those working in industry is part of the
larger community in which industry is located
â?¢ Injury, illness and disease affects workplace and those
outside the worksite â?? the community
â?¢ Workers themselves are a community â?? with common
social problems and environmental risks
History of Occupational Safety and Health Problems
â?¢ Before 1970 â?? some laws had been enacted
â?¢ Industrial revolution â?? rise of mass manufacturing â?? large
work units e.g. mills and factories â?? exposing workers to new
â?¢ Child Labor Laws â?? enacted late 1800
– still protect children today
– amended to reflect the age, conditions, and environments
under which children can be hired
â?¢ Workerâ??s Compensation Laws â?? enacted late 1900s
– designed to compensate those workers and their families
who suffer injuries, disease or death from workplace exposure
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970
â?¢ To ensure employers in private sector furnish each employee a
workplace free from recognized hazards causing or likely to
cause death or serious physical harm
â?¢ Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
established to enforce OSHAct
â?¢ NIOSH â?? National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health- a research body within the Dept. of Health & Human
Services that is responsible for developing and recommending
occupational safety and health standards
Prevalence of Occupational Injuries, Diseases, and
â?¢ Recent trends in workplace injuries and illness
â?¢ Decline in number of workplace injuries and illnesses
reported in private industry since 1992
â?¢ Goods-producing industries, higher rate of nonfatal injury than
â?¢ Highest goods-producing â?? agriculture, forestry, fishing,
hunting (goods)
â?¢ Highest service-producing â?? education and health care
Nonfatal Workplace Injury and Illness
Incidence Rates by Industry, 2011
Unintentional Injuries in the Workplace
â?¢ Minor injuries â?? cuts, bruises, abrasions, minor burns
â?? always report/file an incident report/keep a copy â??
these can become major in the future
â?¢ Major injuries â?? amputations, fractures, severe
lacerations, eye losses, acute poisonings, severe burns
â?? these may cause disability
â?¢ Minor injury, if ignored, can become a major injury
even years later, and may become a life-long
Fatal Work-Related Injuries
â?¢ Transportation incidents leading cause â?? 24%
â?¢ Falls (12%), being struck by object (10%), homicide (10%)
â?¢ Industries with highest rates of fatal occupational injuries
â?¢ Agriculture – 25% (includes next two)
â?¢ Forestry
â?¢ Fishing and hunting
â?¢ Mining – ~ 16%
â?¢ Transportation and warehousing â?? 15.3%
â?¢ Construction â?? 9.1%
Nonfatal Work-Related Injuries
â?¢ In 2011, nearly 3 million injuries and illnesses in private industry; 821,000
injuries reported in state and local govâ??t workers
â?¢ Males account for majority of treatment â?? 69%
â?¢ Males also make up 85% of hospitalizations
â?¢ Disabling injuries and illnesses â?? those in which the injured worker remains
away from work because of injury beyond the day on which the injury occurred
â?¢ Five occupations account for nearly 20% of the days away from work (average
number is 8 days)
1. nursing aides, orderlies, attendants
2. laborers
3. janitors & cleaners
4. heavy tractor-trailer, truck drivers
5. police officers & sheriffâ??s patrol officers
Characteristics of Workers Involved in WorkRelated Injuries
â?¢ Age â?? younger workers 15 to 24 account for 14% of all employed workers and
12.9% of injuries and illnesses involving days lost from work, however,
returned to work in 4-5 days
â?¢ Days away from work with with disabling injury increase with age: ages 55-66
= 12 days lost from work and ages 66 and older = 14 days lost from work
â?¢ Gender â?? males account for ~ 61% of all injury & illness cases involving days
lost from work; they also require more days away from work (10 days) vs
females (7 days)
*Women account for higher proportion of cases with days lost from work with
anxiety, stress, and neurotic disorders (64.9%)
â?¢ Poverty and race â?? not directly related, rates may reflect the types of
employment in which workers find themselves
Agricultural Safety and Health
â?¢ Farming particularly hazardous â?? environmental hazards (heat
stroke, sunburn, uv rays) chemicals, pesticides
â?¢ Farm machinery major contribution to injury
â?¢ Tractors still leading cause of farm injuries and deaths despite
safety improvements
â?¢ Families and workers exposed to same risks
â?¢ Migrant workers â?? exposed to all the above and possibly more
because of unfamiliarity with equipment, language, policies,
procedures, fear
Prevention and Control of Unintentional Injuries in the
â?¢ Four fundamental tasks for employers
â?¢ Anticipation â?? foresight to envision future adverse events and
take action to prevent them
â?¢ Recognition â?? monitoring the workforce for injuries and
illnesses, including â??near missesâ?
â?¢ Evaluation â?? assessment of the data that were collected during
recognition and monitoring activities
â?¢ Control â?? based on findings, making changes to make it safer
Workplace Violence: Intentional Workplace Injuries
â?¢ 1.7 million victims each year
â?¢ Homicides fourth leading cause of workplace fatalities
â?¢ Categories of workplace violence
â?¢ Criminal intent (Type I) â?? no legitimate relationship to business or its
employees (85%)
â?¢ Customer/client (Type II) â?? legitimate relationship with the business and
becomes violent while being served (3%)
â?¢ Worker-on-worker (Type III) â?? employee/past employee who attacks or
threatens another employee (7%)
â?¢ Personal relationship (Type IV) â?? no relationship with the business but has
a personal relationship with the intended victim
Risk Factors
Risk factors for encountering crime
â?¢ Working with the public
â?¢ Working around money or valuables
â?¢ Working alone
â?¢ Working late at night
â?¢ Jobs with higher risk
â?¢ Taxicab drivers
â?¢ Jobs in liquor stores
â?¢ Detective and protective services
â?¢ Delivery service people
â?¢ 24 hour store clerks
Prevention Strategies
â?¢ Environmental designs â?? implementing safer cash-handling
procedures; e.g. partitions in banks, check-cashing vendors, taxis
â?¢ Administrative controls â?? more staffing, procedures for opening
and closing the workplace
â?¢ Behavior strategies â?? training in non-violent response, conflict
resolution, use of emergency equipment and procedures
* All workplaces should have a â??zero tolerance of violence at workâ?
Occupational Illnesses and Disorders
â?¢ Illness more difficult to acquire data on than injury â?? workers donâ??t always
report illness
â?¢ Difficult to link occupational exposure â?? sometimes, causative agent is not so
â?¢ Some conditions slow to develop and difficult to associate with the workplace
â?? sometimes many years later or even after the worker has retired
â?¢ Will take years and lots of legal costs and fees to prove case
â?¢ Important to report all illness and disease promptly and request copies of
Types of Occupational Illnesses
â?¢ Musculoskeletal disorders â?¢ Skin diseases and disorders â?¢ Noise-induced hearing loss â?¢ Respiratory disorders
â?¢ Pneumoconiosis â?? lung disease caused by inhalation of dust, especially
mineral dust
â?¢ Coal workersâ?? pneumoconiosis â?? an acute and chronic lung disease
caused by the inhalation of coal dust (black lung disease)
â?¢ Asbestosis â?? acute or chronic lung disease caused by deposit of
asbestos fibers on lungs
Other Work-Related Diseases and Disorders
â?¢ Silicosis â?? acute or chronic lung disease caused by the inhalation of free
crystalline silica (dust from minerals cause scar tissue on the lungs)
â?¢ Byssinosis â?? acute or chronic lung disease caused by the inhalation of cotton,
flax, or hemp dusts (brown lung disease)
Poisonings â?¢ Agricultural workers â?? from pesticides, heavy metals
â?¢ Health care industry
â?¢ Exposure to hazardous drugs
â?¢ Accidental events
â?¢ â??Nosocomial infectionsâ?
Occupational Safety and Health Programs
â?¢ Pre-placement examinations â?? physical examinations of newly hired or
transferred worker to determine medical suitability for placement in a specific
â?¢ Disease prevention/Safety programs â?? those parts of the workplace safety and
health program aimed at reducing unintentional injuries on the job
â?¢ Worksite health promotion programs â?? health promotion programs in the
workplace that include health education, screening, and/or intervention
designed to change employees health behavior and reduce risks associated with
disease or injury
â?¢ Employee assistance programs â?? workplace-based programs that assist
employees who have substance abuse, domestic, psychological, or social
problems that interfere with their work performance â?? family assistance also
Group Discussion Questions
1- How can employees advocate for safer workplaces?
2- What occupational injury prevention strategies can prove to be most effective
in the coming decades?
3- In what ways are health problems in the workplace related to health problems
in the general community?
4- What are the risk factors for encountering violence in the workplace? Which
occupation is at greatest risk for workplace homicides?
5- Name & describe four occupational safety and health programs. What are
some of the benefits of worksite health promotion programs for employers,
employees, and families?

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