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Graded Element #4 Negotiation Strategies for Women The case study, Negotiation Strategies for Women, deals with the topic of negotiations and gender. It pertains directly to the topics covered in chapter 10 of your textbook. It is taken from articles published by the Program on Negotiation at Harvard University. Read each article and provide your analysis and opinion to answer the questions. Assignment MUST include: Cover Page with Studentâ??s Name, Course Number and Title, Class Time and Date, Assignment Number and write out each question; answer in detail using complete paragraphs and sentencesWord Processed – 12 Point Font, Double-spaced Free of grammatical and spelling errors #1: Identify and list four (4) specific issues of your choice discussed in all the articles pertaining to gender differences in negotiations. #2: Describe in your own words each issue and explain in detail why you believe each issues is important to understanding gender differences in the negotiating process. #3: Analyze how understanding each issue will enhance your ability to negotiate with the opposite gender in future. Women â?? How can you use this information to be a stronger negotiator? Men â?? How will you negotiate differently with women with this new knowledge? Reflection: Critique the Negotiation Strategies for Women report for its overall value.Identify the one article that you feel was the most valuable to you and explain why? Explain how this report is important to study of negotiations?
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THE SCHOOL OF HOSPITALITY
SEE 3850 – Negotiations and Agreements
Graded Element #4
Negotiation Strategies for Women
The case study, Negotiation Strategies for Women, deals with the topic of negotiations and gender. It pertains
directly to the topics covered in chapter 10 of your textbook. It is taken from articles published by the Program
on Negotiation at Harvard University. Read each article and provide your analysis and opinion to answer the
questions.
Assignment MUST include:
â?¢ Cover Page with Studentâ??s Name, Course Number and Title, Class Time and Date, Assignment
â?¢ Number and write out each question; answer in detail using complete paragraphs and sentences
â?¢ Word Processed – 12 Point Font, Double-spaced
â?¢ Free of grammatical and spelling errors
#1: Identify and list four (4) specific issues of your choice discussed in all the articles pertaining to gender
differences in negotiations.
#2: Describe in your own words each issue and explain in detail why you believe each issues is important to
understanding gender differences in the negotiating process.
#3: Analyze how understanding each issue will enhance your ability to negotiate with the opposite gender in
future. Women â?? How can you use this information to be a stronger negotiator? Men â?? How will you negotiate
differently with women with this new knowledge?
Reflection:
Critique the Negotiation Strategies for Women report for its overall value. Identify the one article that you feel
was the most valuable to you and explain why? Explain how this report is important to study of negotiations?
NEGOTIATION
STRATEGIES
FOR WOMEN
FREE REPORT
SECRETS TO SUCCESS
Executive Committee
Max Bazerman
Harvard Business School
Gabriella Blum
Harvard Law School
Robert Bordone
Harvard Law School
Jared Curhan
MIT Sloan School of Management
Alain Lempereur
Brandeis University
Robert Mnookin
Harvard Law School
Jeswald Salacuse
Tufts University Fletcher School
James Sebenius
Harvard Business School
Guhan Subramanian
Harvard Business School
Lawrence Susskind
MIT Department of Urban Studies
& Planning
About the Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School
Widely recognized as the preeminent leader in the field of negotiation and negotiation
research, the Program on Negotiation (PON) is an interdisciplinary, multi-university
research center based at Harvard Law School. Offering timely executive education
programs, teaching negotiation resources, the Negotiation Briefings newsletter and
Negotiation Journal, special community events, and webinars, PON is a one-stop
resource for both aspiring and accomplished negotiators.
Our faculty have negotiated peace treaties, brokered multi-billion dollar deals, and
hammered out high-stakes agreements around the globe. They are prominent authors,
leading researchers, and distinguished professorsâ??many of whom have originated the
negotiation strategies used by many of the worldâ??s must successful leadersâ?¦and they
teach at PONâ??s renowned programs:
â?¢ Negotiation and Leadership
â?¢ PON Seminars
â?¢ Harvard Negotiation Institute Summer Programs
â?¢ Negotiation Master Class
Learn more or register at pon.harvard.edu/executive-education/
Negotiation Briefings, which serves as the basis for this special report, draws on ideas
from leading authorities and scholars in the field of negotiation to help you realize
greater success within your team, and with your counterparts, peers and employees.
Learn more or subscribe at pon.harvard.edu/publications/
Table of Contents
Copyright © 2013 by Harvard University. This
publication may not be reproduced in part or
whole without the express written permission
of the Program on Negotiation. You may not
forward this document electronically.
1. Why Women Sometimes Ask for Less
Page 2
2. Dear Negotiation Coach: Negotiating the Gender Gap
Page 4
3. Women Negotiators and the Backlash Effect
Page 6
4. The â??Sandberg Effectâ?: Why Women Are Asking for More
Page 7
5. Dear Negotiation Coach: Pushing for Better Results
Page 11
6. Women Negotiators: Focus on Power and Status
Page 12
7. Dear Negotiation Coach: A Closer Look at the Gender Gap
Page 16
8. Women Rising: The Unseen Barrier
Page 18
Can one day change the
course of your career?
WOMEN AND CAREER
NEGOTIATIONS
JUNE 19, 2014
The Charles Hotel / Cambridge, MA
Led by Professor Hannah Riley Bowles
More recognition. Better Pay. Career Advancement.
Learn how to advocate for your own success. Understand that career
negotiations extend far beyond salary and bonus. Be conscious of the
organizational barriers that might impact your success.
Negotiate your way to success at the bargaining table.
Learn how to prepare, anticipate objections, tailor your strategy, and
creatively think about solutions that meet both your needs and the
needs of your employer.
Taught by Hannah Riley Bowles, Research Director of the Women and
Public Policy Program at the Harvard Kennedy School and renowned
expert on the role of gender in negotiation.
Learn more or register at
www.pon.harvard.edu
PRO GR A M ON N E G O T I AT ION
1. Why Women Sometimes Ask for Less
The average college-educated woman earns $713,000 less over the course
of her working life than her male counterpart, according to the Coalition of Labor
Union Women. What explains this persistent gender gap? Women employeesâ??
awareness that they could be penalized for negotiating assertively on their own
behalf is one factor, according to new research from Emily T. Amanatullah of the
University of Texas at Austin and Michael W. Morris of Columbia University.
The fear of a backlash
In their experiment, Amanatullah and Morris had male and female college
students engage in a simulated job negotiation. The participants were told to
negotiate either their own starting salary or a friendâ??s starting salary through five
rounds of offers and counteroffers.
Before negotiating, the women, but not the men, reported believing that they
might be punished if they were perceived as too â??pushyâ? or â??demanding.â? Further,
this fear of backlash was unique to women negotiating their own salaries, as those
negotiating for a friend did not anticipate social punishment for their behavior.
Another negotiation study suggests that this fear held by women negotiating their
own salaries is warranted: women and men alike penalized female job candidates
who initiated salary negotiations, researchers Hannah Riley Bowles (Harvard
University), Linda Babcock (Carnegie Mellon University), and Lei Lai (Tulane
University) found.
A self-protective strategy
In Amanatullah and Morrisâ??s study, women who bargained on their own
behalf opened with significantly lower counteroffersâ??about $7,000 lessâ??
than women who negotiated for a friend and than men who negotiated for
2
To subscribe to Negotiation Briefings, call 800-391-8629, write to negotiation@law.harvard.edu, or visit www.pon.harvard.edu.
PRO GR A M ON N E G O T I AT ION
either another person or themselves. These women appeared to fear a backlash
for behaving contrary to gender stereotypes of women as accommodating
and cooperative.
By contrast, the women who negotiated on behalf of a friend understood
they would not be penalized for negotiating forcefully for someone elseâ??behavior
that complies with the stereotype of women as caretakers who focus on othersâ??
needs rather than their own. In this situation, they were not hesitant to negotiate
assertively on behalf of their friends.
The results refute the theory that women are naturally less skilled or aggressive
negotiators than men. Rather, the tendency of women to ask for less than men
in certain settings may be a self-protective strategy based on a very real threat of
being penalized for behaving contrary to deeply ingrained gender expectations.
How to fend off a backlash
The study results suggest several pieces of advice:
â? â?  Connect
to others. To close the gender gap and avoid a backlash when
negotiating on their own behalf, women should try to link aggressive
demands to the needs of others, such as the organizationâ??s. (See â??Dear
Negotiation Coachâ? on page 4 for more detail.) Requests made on othersâ??
behalf are likely to be better received.
â? â?  Stay
vigilant. Both men and women need to audit their judgments for the
subconscious tendency to view assertive women negotiators as unlikable
and overly demanding.
â? â?  Use
objective measures. When making requests, women should reference
relevant standards that would be difficult for the other side to ignore. In
addition, organizations should attempt to control the insidious effects
of gender stereotypes by instating salary benchmarks based on objective
performance measures.
Resource: â??Negotiating Gender Roles: Gender Differences in Assertive Negotiating Are Mediated by Womenâ??s Fear of
Backlash and Attenuated When Negotiating on Behalf of Others,� by Emily T. Amanatullah and Michael W. Morris.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 98, 2010.
By Katherine Shonk, Editor, Negotiation newsletter.
First published in the Negotiation newsletter, May 2010.
To subscribe to Negotiation Briefings, call 800-391-8629, write to negotiation@law.harvard.edu, or visit www.pon.harvard.edu.
3
PRO GR A M ON N E G O T I AT ION
2. Dear Negotiation Coach:
Negotiating the Gender Gap
Question:
I recently figured out that I am one of the lowest-paid people at my level in
my organizationâ??even though I am one of the top performers. I am also one
of the few women at my level. I think I should negotiate for a compensation
increase during my upcoming performance review. I negotiate all the time for my
company and I love it, but I feel really uncomfortable about negotiating this raise
for myself. Any advice?
Answer:
Itâ??s quite reasonable for women to feel hesitant about negotiating on their
own behalf. Negotiating in an assertive, self-interested way contradicts the
feminine stereotype of women as selfless caregivers, and the social costs of
contradicting this stereotype can be significant.
For instance, Linda Babcock of Carnegie Mellon University, Lei Lai of
Vanderbilt University, and I found in our research that evaluators perceived
women who negotiated for higher compensation to be significantly more
demanding and less â??niceâ? than those who didnâ??t ask for what they wanted.
Consequently, the evaluators were less inclined to work with the women who
negotiated. This social cost is substantially greater for women than for men.
Yet when women are advocating on behalf of others, the social cost evaporates,
research by Emily Amanatullah of the University of Texas at Austin and Michael
Morris of Columbia University has shown.
With these findings in mind, I suggest that you adopt two goals in your
upcoming negotiation: (1) to get your compensation request granted, and
(2) to make a positive impression. The latter goal is important because if your
negotiating behavior undermines your reputation, any economic gains could
be overshadowed by the long-term career costs.
In addition, consider how you can make the most persuasive case for a raise.
My research with Babcock suggests that even if youâ??re angry, you should focus on
4
To subscribe to Negotiation Briefings, call 800-391-8629, write to negotiation@law.harvard.edu, or visit www.pon.harvard.edu.
PRO GR A M ON N E G O T I AT ION
communicating how much you enjoy your job, love advocating for the company,
and value working with your colleagues. Our research indicates that women can
increase their salaries by using what we call relational accounts. Accounts are the
explanations we use to persuade others to accept our behavior. In a compensation
negotiation, a relational account conveys both the legitimacy of your request and
your concern for organizational relationships.
Here are two types of relational accounts that worked in our research.
In the first, the negotiator uses â??weâ? language and explains that a supervisor
suggested she make a compensation request, thus conveying that she is embedded
in positive organizational relationships. In the second, the negotiator calls
attention to her propensity to negotiate, identifying it as a key skill she brings
to the company. When confronted with either of these strategies (as compared
with a simple request for a raise), evaluators were more inclined to grant the
compensation request and to work with the female negotiator in the future.
These scripts should help you brainstorm creative ways to justify your request
in a manner that also signals your genuine concern for your company and your
relationships with colleagues.
Hereâ??s how this might work. A senior executive recently recounted to me
what happened when she found out for the second time that a male subordinate
was being paid more than she was. She approached her superiors as if she were
pointing out a mistake that she was confident they would want to resolve. â??I know
that the company would not want a subordinate to be paid more than a supervisor,�
she said. â??Iâ??m sure you agree that we should correct this.â? She got her raise.
Hannah Riley Bowles
Associate Professor
Harvard Kennedy School
First published in the Negotiation newsletter, August 2011.
To subscribe to Negotiation Briefings, call 800-391-8629, write to negotiation@law.harvard.edu, or visit www.pon.harvard.edu.
5
PRO GR A M ON N E G O T I AT ION
3. Women Negotiators and the Backlash Effect
Fearful of a backlash, women often avoid negotiating in an assertive
manner, and with good reason. Women who negotiate assertively risk being
passed over for jobs and promotions because they are viewed as socially unskilled
and unlikable, research has found. By contrast, when women negotiate assertively
on othersâ?? behalf rather than for themselves, observers tend to react much more
positively to them.
By framing a negotiation in terms of its benefits to others, research suggests,
women may be able to avoid the â??likable versus competentâ? conundrumâ??that
is, the tendency to be viewed as either likable or competent, but not both. In a
new article in the journal Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,
Emily T. Amanatullah of the University of Texas at Austin and Catherine H.
Tinsley of Georgetown University looked at the â??backlash effectâ? against women
negotiators more closely.
When behavior clashes with norms
In one experiment, Amanatullah and Tinsley presented college students
with a hypothetical salary negotiation between a job candidate and a hiring
manager. Study participants were less inclined to interact socially with women
who advocated for themselves than with women who advocated for others
during the negotiation scenario. The participants did not similarly penalize male
negotiators who behaved assertively.
In two other experiments, participants viewed women who negotiated
assertively for themselves as embodying stereotypically negative masculine traits,
namely dominance, arrogance, and entitlement. In addition, participants punished
women who negotiated for others in an accommodating (rather than assertive)
manner and viewed them as weak, a stereotypically negative feminine trait.
It seems that when women violate social norms of traditional female
behavior, they open themselves up to criticism. Yet when women negotiate
assertively for others, they avoid backlash, apparently because they are fulfilling
the feminine stereotype of being helpful to others.
6
To subscribe to Negotiation Briefings, call 800-391-8629, write to negotiation@law.harvard.edu, or visit www.pon.harvard.edu.
PRO GR A M ON N E G O T I AT ION
Searching for solutions
The results suggest that women may face long-term social costs for negotiating
assertively on their own behalfâ??and, for that matter, for not negotiating assertively
for those they represent. Meanwhile, people appear to be much more tolerant
when men violate typical expectations of male behavior (for example, by being
accommodating).
Women may be able to overcome the threat of a backlash by framing their
job negotiations in terms of how any gains would benefit others in addition to
themselves. Managers who resist this type of accommodation might advocate
for broader remedies. For example, organizations could adopt compensation
systems that use objective performance criteria or peer evaluations to determine
raises and promotions, thus diminishing the weight given to negotiations with
individual employees, Amanatullah and Tinsley suggest.
By Katherine Shonk, Editor, Negotiation newsletter.
First published in the Negotiation newsletter, July 2012.
4. The â??Sandberg Effectâ?:
Why Women Are Asking for More
In early 2008, Facebook founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg began
thinking about hiring Sheryl Sandberg, a vice president at Google and a former
chief of staff for the U.S. Department of the Treasury, as the social-media
companyâ??s new chief operating officer. The two met several nights a week for
almost two months to discuss Facebookâ??s mission and future.
Finally, Zuckerberg made an offer. Sandberg felt it was fair. Whatâ??s more, as
she recounts in her recent bestseller, Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead
(Knopf, 2013), she was â??dying to accept the job.â? But her husband urged her not to
take the first offer on the table.
Sandberg balked: What if, by playing hardball, she antagonized Zuckerberg?
She was on the verge of accepting when words from her brother-in-law
stopped her in her tracks: â??Damn it, Sheryl! Why are you going to make less than
any man would make to do the same job?�
To subscribe to Negotiation Briefings, call 800-391-8629, write to negotiation@law.harvard.edu, or visit www.pon.harvard.edu.
7
PRO GR A M ON N E G O T I AT ION
Newly motivated, Sandberg told Zuckerberg that she couldnâ??t accept his
offer. She noted that he was hiring her to run his deal teams. â??This is the only
time you and I will ever be on opposite sides of the table,� Sandberg said, then
laid out what she wanted. The next day, Zuckerberg came back to her with a
significantly better offer.
Stories like this one from Sandbergâ??s book, which is aimed at motivating
women to aspire to leadership positions, appear to be striking a chord among
women pro­fessionals. In fact, evidence suggests that women who typically pass
up opportunities to negotiate on their own behalf at work have found a new role
modelâ??and justificationâ??for more assertive behavior.
Why women havenâ??t asked
In a chapter called â??Success and Likeabilityâ? in Lean In, Sandberg sums up
the catch-22 that confronts women professionals by citing a study by Frank Flynn
(Columbia Business School) and Cameron Anderson (University of California,
Berkeley). In the study, participants read a description of an outgoing, wellconnected, and successful venture capitalist. Some participants were told that the
personâ??s name was Howard; others were told it was Heidi.
When asked to judge Howard/Heidi based on the identical descriptions,
the participants perceived them to be equally competent. Yet while Howard
was judged to be pleasant to work with, Heidi was judged to be selfish and an
unappealing colleague.
This and other research suggests that we tend to respond more favorably
to successful men than to successful women. Why? When men focus on their
careers, they fulfill familiar stereotypes of men as driven, decisive providers. But
when women demonstrate drive and determination in the workplace, they violate
gender stereotypes of women as sensitive, communal caregivers.
Internalizing this dilemma, women correctly intuit that they will be
punishedâ??in the form of being disliked by their coworkersâ??for negotiating on
their own behalf. As discussed in past Negotiation articles, research bears out
this expectation. In one study, Harvard Kennedy School professor Hannah Riley
Bowles and her colleagues found that participants were less willing to work with
8
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