Hi I need a PrÃ©cis . A PrÃ©cis is a critical essay which has a special characrecters. when you summarize. Do not use the same words which are in the slides. Iprefer to say it in other words. I upload two power points one say how to make a PrÃ©cis. The other one use it to make a PrÃ©cis. -I need one or one and half pages to make aPrÃ©cis.cover page should be separate.
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Budget Performance Evaluation:
Examining Return on Investment.
The Concept of Performance
A. Performance Evaluation Defined;
C. Two Reasons for Evaluating
D. Responsibility Accounting
A. Decentralization Defined:
Organizations that grant substantial decision
making authority to the managers of subunits
are referred to as decentralized organizations.
Most firms are neither totally centralized nor
B. Two Reasons for Evaluating
â? Identification of successful areas of operation and areas
in need of improvement.
â? Influence over the behavior of leaders.
C. Responsibility Accounting:
â? leaders should only be held
responsible for costs and
revenues that they control.
â? In a decentralized
organization, costs and
revenues are traced to the
organizational level where
they can be controlled.
Types of Responsibility Centers:
A. Cost Centers;
B. Profit Centers;
C. Investment Centers.
Evaluating Centers with Return on
A. The Components of ROI;
B. Measuring ROI Income and Invested
C. Problems with Using ROI.
The Components of ROI.
ROI has a distinct advantage over income as a measure of
performance since it considers both income (the numerator)
and investment (the denominator).
The breakdown of the formula shows that leaders can increase
return by more profit and/or generating more sales for each
Problems with Using ROI:
â? Investment in assets is typically measured using historical cost. ROI becomes
larger as assets become depreciated. This may result in leaders taking
unnecessary delays in updating equipment.
â? Leaders may turn down projects with positive net values, simply because
accepting the project results in a reduced ROI. In other words, projects may
be turned down if they provide a return above the cost of capital but below the
The Balanced Scorecard:
The Balanced Scorecard Approach;
The Balanced Scorecard Dimensions;
How Balance is Achieved.
The Balance Scorecard Approach:
â? A problem with just
assessing performance with
financial measures is that
such measures are
â? The balanced scorecard
approach also focuses on
what leaders are currently
doing to create future
B. The Balanced Scorecard Dimensions.
Is the organization
Is the organization meeting
Is the organization improving
critical internal processes?
Learning and Growth
Is the organization improving
its ability to innovate?
How Balance is Achieved:
â? Performance is assessed across a balanced set of
â? Quantitative measures (e.g., number of defects) are
balanced with qualitative measures (e.g., rate of
â? There is a balance of backward-looking and forwardlooking measures.
â?Decentralization and Responsibility
â?Cost, Profit, and Investment Centers
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