Project paper

Assignment 1:Project References = 10 points Each group member will individuallyturn in a typed list of the references they have found, with at least 4 being referred, the title of the paper, and the names of each group member on the page.The list should be in the proper format outlined in Appendix C. Using the Holman Library (See Appendix F) The GRCC Library offers excellent electronic methods for finding reference materials for your projects. Most can be accessed directly via the World Wide Web. The GRCC Library Catalog contains all of the books at the college, but books are probably not the best source for this project. Most of your references should be periodicals as they are usually more specific and up-to-date. There are several searchable electronic databases available for your use. A GRCC librarian will be happy to assist you in determining the databases most appropriate for your project. You may find that some of the periodicals that would be of greatest help for your project are not available through the GRCC Library. If this is the case, please talk to a librarian about how to get copies of articles that you need from other libraries in the region.Often you can get what you need in a couple of days. The references you pick are not all created equally! The best source is information from the scientists who conducted the study. Try to find information of this typeâ??much of it may be too technical but you should be able to glean some information from it. The second best source is popular science journals such as Scientific American, Science News, American Scientist, or Discover. Most of your references will probably be of this type. Since these periodicals are devoted to science, they tend to be better sources of information than general magazines such as Time or Newsweek.General popular references such as newspapers and general magazines may sometimes be helpful but donâ??t limit yourself to these. Each person should try to find at least 4 references of high quality. Remember that part of your grade for your paper is based on the quality of your references. The World Wide Web also provides an excellent source of materials. Web pages vary in quality enormously, so you should take care to use sources that provide accurate information. Look carefully for the biases of the authors. Many news magazines, newspapers and journals now publish on the web. These will tend to be more reliable than individually published web pages. The latter may be very useful, though, particularly if they cite references. Do not limit yourself to material that is strictly web based. Every scientific publication provides an â??Instructions to Authorsâ? that describes the format for the references section and all other requirements for papers they will accept. The format for citing references varies slightly from one scientific publication to another.By following the guidelines as outlined in Appendix C you will insure your citations are cited correctly. Assignments 2 & 3: Draft and Final Paper Project = 30 and 60 points Every member will turn in a paper on one aspect of your groupâ??s topic using the references you have found. This report should be about 4 pages typed and double-spaced. Your title page, figures, and references should be on additional pages. High quality papers are expected. Use a word processor and save your electronic version of the paper until after you receive your grade. Computer crashes are not an excuse for late papers. Make back-up copies of your paper as storage disks are unreliable. Itâ??s a good idea to keep a hard-copy too. The initial draft of your paper is due at the beginning of lab during the 7th week. You should bring 2 copies of your paper to lab. One copy will be turned in and the second copy will be given to another member of the class. You will read another class memberâ??s paper, make comments on the paper, which I will review, and return it to the writer. The final version of your paper is due at the start of lab during the ninth week of class.You will receive two grades for your paper: a rough grade and a final grade. The rough paper grade will be based on the quality of the rough draft of your paper, as well as the quality of the comments you receive when evaluated by your peers in class.The final draft of your paper will be graded more carefully.You should turn in your rough paper, which I graded, with its rubric, and the peer reviewed paper (with comments) with your final paper so that I can review what other authors thought of your rough draft.
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Laboratory 9: Paper Project Handout
Perspectives
Each person will work in a group of about 4 people on a project that addresses a topic related to
cellular biology (suggestions can be found on pages 122). It can be a scientific question or a question
arising from the application of scientific advances to societal problems. For this assignment, the topic
must have some interesting cell biology associated with it. When presenting various aspects of the
topic, it is important that there is a cellular basis to support the premise.
The group will select a topic and then divide the topic into four subcategories. For example the
group decides to investigate Stem cell research. They could then divide up the overarching topic into
the history of stem cell research, definition and discussion of the process of stem cell research, the
protagonistâ??s side of stem cell research, and the antagonistâ??s side of stem cell research. Each student
will find their own references, write a four page narrative summary paper on their individual topic, and
finally the group will organize an oral presentation to present their research to their lab section.
The Paper Project consists of five graded assignments: Project References (Appendix C and
Appendix F), Initial Draft of Paper, and a Final Draft of Paper. Each of these three assignments are
described on the pages that follow. Refer to the table below for dues dates and how each assignment
contributes towards your total grade.
Assignment
Basis for Grade
Points for Assignment
1. Project
References
2. Initial Draft of Paper
One list per person
(Individual grade)
One paper per person
(Individual grade)
10 points
3. Final Draft of Paper
One paper per person
(Individual grade)
60 points
30 points
Due Dates for
At the start of your lab
during week 5
At the start of your lab
during week 7
At start of your lab
during week 9
This assignment is to give you the opportunity to use the knowledge you have gained or will gain
throughout this course and kind of bring the ideas to bear by presenting a body of evidence to support
your premise. Approach this project with the vigor of attempting to move your peers into a realm of
questing knowledge.
Procedure
Assignment 1:
Project References = 10 points
Each group member will individually turn in a typed list of the references they have found, with at
least 4 being referred, the title of the paper, and the names of each group member on the page. The list
should be in the proper format outlined in Appendix C.
Using the Holman Library (See Appendix F)
The GRCC Library offers excellent electronic methods for finding reference materials for your
projects. Most can be accessed directly via the World Wide Web. The GRCC Library Catalog contains all
of the books at the college, but books are probably not the best source for this project. Most of your
references should be periodicals as they are usually more specific and up-to-date. There are several
searchable electronic databases available for your use. A GRCC librarian will be happy to assist you in
determining the databases most appropriate for your project. You may find that some of the periodicals
that would be of greatest help for your project are not available through the GRCC Library. If this is the
case, please talk to a librarian about how to get copies of articles that you need from other libraries in
the region. Often you can get what you need in a couple of days.
The references you pick are not all created equally! The best source is information from the
scientists who conducted the study. Try to find information of this typeâ??much of it may be too
technical but you should be able to glean some information from it. The second best source is popular
science journals such as Scientific American, Science News, American Scientist, or Discover. Most of
your references will probably be of this type. Since these periodicals are devoted to science, they tend
to be better sources of information than general magazines such as Time or Newsweek. General
popular references such as newspapers and general magazines may sometimes be helpful but donâ??t
limit yourself to these. Each person should try to find at least 4 references of high quality. Remember
that part of your grade for your paper is based on the quality of your references.
The World Wide Web also provides an excellent source of materials. Web pages vary in quality
enormously, so you should take care to use sources that provide accurate information. Look carefully
for the biases of the authors. Many news magazines, newspapers and journals now publish on the web.
These will tend to be more reliable than individually published web pages. The latter may be very
useful, though, particularly if they cite references. Do not limit yourself to material that is strictly web
based.
Every scientific publication provides an â??Instructions to Authorsâ? that describes the format for the
references section and all other requirements for papers they will accept. The format for citing
references varies slightly from one scientific publication to another. By following the guidelines as
outlined in Appendix C you will insure your citations are cited correctly.
Assignments 2 & 3:
Draft and Final Paper Project = 30 and 60 points
Every member will turn in a paper on one aspect of your groupâ??s topic using the references you
have found. This report should be about 4 pages typed and double-spaced. Your title page, figures,
and references should be on additional pages. High quality papers are expected. Use a word processor
and save your electronic version of the paper until after you receive your grade. Computer crashes are
not an excuse for late papers. Make back-up copies of your paper as storage disks are unreliable. Itâ??s a
good idea to keep a hard-copy too.
The initial draft of your paper is due at the beginning of lab during the 7th week. You should bring
2 copies of your paper to lab. One copy will be turned in and the second copy will be given to another
member of the class. You will read another class memberâ??s paper, make comments on the paper, which
I will review, and return it to the writer. The final version of your paper is due at the start of lab during
the ninth week of class. You will receive two grades for your paper: a rough grade and a final grade.
The rough paper grade will be based on the quality of the rough draft of your paper, as well as the
quality of the comments you receive when evaluated by your peers in class. The final draft of your
paper will be graded more carefully. You should turn in your rough paper, which I graded, with its
rubric, and the peer reviewed paper (with comments) with your final paper so that I can review what
other authors thought of your rough draft.
How to get started!
Search existing literature, start early because searches take time (See Appendix F). You need to
know what information is available, as well as hot or controversial topics in the fields. To gain a
comprehensive view of the field, I recommend starting with a book chapter or a review article. Use the
reference sections from those to find more detailed information.
Come talk to me in person. You can get a lot of feedback from me at any point during the
preparation. Added benefit is that you can figure out my preliminary evaluation of your presentation, so
that you will know how much and what kind of work you have to do quality work.
Organize your work. You are working with others. Clearly organizing and designating responsibility
for each is extremely important. I recommend getting together regularly (e.g. 2-3 times week for at
least 30 min. each), so that you can give each other update on how things are going.
Your paper will be scored by the rubric found in your syllabus.
Possible topics for the paper:
â?¢ Biological Basis for Human Races: Is there a biological basis for dividing people into races?
â?¢ Genetic Modification of Food Crops: Are GM foods safe to eat?
â?¢ Genetic Engineering of Organisms (e.g. plants, animals, or microbes): Do the benefits
outweigh the possible drawbacks?
â?¢ The Puzzle of Hypertension in African-Americans: Why is high blood pressure the leading
cause of health problems among black Americans while the people of western Africa have among the
lowest rates of hypertension anywhere in the world?
â?¢ Somatic Cell Gene Therapy: Should somatic cell gene therapy be used to treat genetic
diseases?
â?¢ Slowing Human Aging: Is it possible to slow down the aging process?
â?¢ Genetic Basis of Aging: How important are genes in determining life expectancy?
â?¢ Alzheimer’s disease: Is a cure imminent? Why are more women than men affected by it?
â?¢ Abortion Pill: Is the use of RU 486 harmful to woman’s health? Should it be banned?
â?¢ Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Is there are genetic basis to the neurological
abnormalities involved with ADHD?
â?¢ Hormone Replacement Therapy: Should postmenopausal women use hormone replacement
therapy (HRT) to reduce/prevent osteoporosis?
â?¢ Human Cloning: Should human cloning research be allowed/funded by the federal
government?
â?¢ Human Fetal Tissue Research: Should the federal government allow/fund medical research
involving human fetal tissue obtained from aborted fetuses and umbilical cords or are there alternative
sources for stem cells for medical research?
â?¢ Homosexuality: Is there a genetic basis for homosexuality?
â?¢ Thrill/Novelty Seeking: Is there a genetic basis for thrill or novelty seeking?
â?¢ Obesity: Is there a genetic basis for obesity?
â?¢ Genetic Basis of Heart Disease: Are national differences in rates of heart disease
environmentally or genetically caused? What is the role of a dietary cholesterol and fat in heart
disease?
â?¢ Alcoholism/Substance abuse: Is there a genetic basis for alcoholism/substance abuse?
â?¢ Alternative Cancer Therapies: Traditional (chemotherapy and radiation) vs.
alternative/experimental therapy do cancer patients have an alternative to the devastating effects of
chemotherapy and radiation therapy?
â?¢ Safety of Food Additives: Do food preservatives/additives pose a significant health risk (e.g.
cancer, developmental problems, etc.)? Are they being regulated properly?
â?¢ Hormone use by the food industry: Is it a human health hazard to eat food products derived
from hormonally treated animals?
â?¢ Depression: What is the biological cause of depression?
â?¢ Child Abuse: Should mothers of drug-addicted babies/fetal alcohol syndrome be prosecuted
for child abuse?
â?¢ Cloning for Medicine: Hype or a possible reality?
â?¢ Genetic Basis of Athletic Performance: Can anyone become a world class athlete if they
train properly? What role(s) do genes of the athlete play?
â?¢ Nutritional supplements: Is it worth the expense to take nutritional supplements? (e.g.
Vitamin supplements, melatonin, anti-oxidants, etc.)
â?¢ Genetic Testing and Screening: Should widespread testing for cystic fibrosis (or other
genetic diseases) be implemented?
Appendix A: How to graph scientific data?
Often the first step in analyzing the results of an experiment is the presentation of the data
in the form of a graph. A graph is a visual representation of the data, which assists in bringing
out and finding the possible relationship(s) between the independent and dependent variables.
Examination of a graph makes it much easier to see the effect the independent variable has on
the dependent variable(s).
Accurate and clearly constructed graphs will assist in the interpretation and
communication of your data, and when presenting a well-documented argument supporting or
falsifying your hypothesis in the final steps of a scientific investigation. All graphs should be
easy to interpret and labeled fully. The following guidelines will help you construct a proper
graph.
Graphing tips
1) Use graph paper of a high quality.
2) A ruler should be used to draw axes and to plot data neatly and accurately.
3) Always graph the independent variable on the x-axis (horizontal axis), and the dependent
variable on the y-axis (vertical axis).
4) The scales of the axes should be adjusted so that the graph fills the page as much as
possible. The axes often, but not always, start at zero. Choose your intervals and scales to maximize the
use of the graph paper. Intervals should be logically spaced and easy to interpret when analyzing the
graph (e.g. intervals of 1â??s, 5â??s, or 10â??s are easily interpreted, but non-integer intervals (e.g. 3.25â??s,
2.33â??s, etc.) are not. To avoid producing a graph with a lot of wasted space a discontinuous scale is
recommended for one or both scales if the first data point is a large number. Simply add two tic marks
between the zero and your lowest number on one or both axes to show that the scale has changed.
5) Label both axes to indicate the variable and the units of measure. Write the specific name
of the variable. Do not label the axes as the dependent variable and independent variable. Include a
legend if different colors are used to indicate different aspects of the experiment.
6) Graphs (along with drawings and diagrams) are called figures and are numbered
consecutively throughout a lab report or scientific paper. Each figure is given a number, a title that
describes the contents, and an informative sentence giving enough information for the figure to be
understandable apart from the text (e.g. Figure 1 Temperature and Leaf Color Change The
relationship between the change in vine maple leaf color and changes in ambient temperature.).
Generally, this information is placed below the figure or graph.
7) Choose the type of graph that best presents your data. Line and bar graphs are the most
common. The choice of graph type depends on the nature of the variable being graphed.
Line Graphs are used to graph data that only involves continuous variables. A continuous variable
is capable of having values over a continuous range (i.e. anywhere between those that were measured
in the experiment). For example, pulse rate, temperature, time, concentration, pH, etc. are all examples
of continuous variables (Figure 1).
Making Line Graphs
1) Plot data as separate points. Make each point as fine as possible and then surround each
data point with a small circle. If more than one set of data is plotted on the same graph, distinguish
each set by using circles, boxes, triangles, etc.
2) Generally, do not connect the data points dot to dot. Draw smooth curves, or if there
appears to be a linear relationship between the two variables, draw a line of best fit.
3) If more than one set of data is plotted on a graph, provide a key of legend to indicate
identify each set. Label the graph as a figure; give it an informative title, and a descriptive sentence.
Figure 1 pH Effects on Lactase Note that a line graph was used to graph the data because both variables, pH
and the rate of digestion, are continuous variables.
Bar Graphs are used if the data involves a discrete variable (non-continuous variable). A discrete
variable, unlike a continuous variable, cannot have intermediate values between those measured. For
example, a bar graph (Figure 2) would be used to plot the data in an experiment involving the
determination of chlorophyll concentration (chlorophyll concentration is a continuous variable) found in
the leaves of different tree species (The discrete variable is the species of tree). Bar graphs are
constructed using the same principles as for line graphs, except that the vertical bars are drawn in a
series along the horizontal axis (i.e. x-axis). In the example below, a bar graph was used to graph the
data because tree species is a discrete variable since it is impossible to have a value or species between
those used.
Figure 2 Chlorophyll Concentrations The chlorophyll concentrations were measured mg/grams of leaf in the
leaves of three tree species.
Appendix B: How to convert to the metric system?
Larger Unit
Tips for Metric Conversion:
1. When converting from a larger
1 km = 103 m = 1000 m
unit of measure to a smaller unit
of measure (e.g. from kilometers,
1 m = 100 m
km to meters, m) move the
decimal to the right. This results
1 cm = 10-2 m = 0.01 m
in a larger number.
2. When converting from a smaller
unit of measure to a larger unit of
1 mm = 10-3 m = 0.001 m
measure (e.g. from m to km)
-6
move the decimal to the left.
1 m = 10 m = 0.000001 m
This results in a smaller number.
3. See below to determine how
1 nm = 10-9 m = 0.000000001 m
many decimal places to move.
Smaller Unit
Figure 4 Metric System Relationships This figure shows the conversion relationships of common
metric measurements.
Determination of the number of decimal places to Move
The number of decimal places moved is equal to the magnitude difference between the exponents
of the two units of measure. The exponent scale below illustrates the relationship between exponents.
-6 -5
m
-4
-3
mm
-2 -1
cm
0
m
1
2
3
km
4
Examples
1. 9.25 km =?? mm
â?¢ km to mm is a large to small unit conversion, so the decimal must move to the right.
â?¢ The magnitude of difference between the exponents of each unit of measure is 6:
km = 103, mm = 10-3; Therefore: 3 – (-3) = 6
â?¢ So the decimal place moves to the right six places giving 9,250,000 mm (or 9.25 x 10 6 mm)
2. 450 µm =?? mm
� µm to mm is a small to large unit conversion, so the decimal must move to the left.
â?¢ The magnitude of difference between the exponents of each unit of measure is 3:
µm = 10-6, mm = 10-3; Therefore: -3 – (-6) = 3
â?¢ So the decimal place moves to the left three places giving 0.45 mm
Appendix C: How to cite references in papers?
In-Text Citations
There are typically not footnotes or endnotes in scientific writing as there are in humanities and the
social sciences. Instead, all citations occur in the text in parenthetical format, with the author(s) and
date of publication. Use the following as an example:
Parsons (1996) found that naked mole rats dig six times faster in desert soils than dung beetles
dig through dung.
Alternatively,
Naked mole rats dig six times faster in desert soils than dung beetles dig through dung. (Parsons
1996).
Or,
Naked mole rats dig six times faster in desert soils than dung beetles dig through dung. (1) This
notation (1) refers the reader to the bibliography which is sequentially numbered and each citation from
this author is referred to in this fashion.
It’s that simple! Be sure to list any sources you cite in the text in the Literature Cited section, and
only those that you cite.
As a rule of thumb, if there is more than one author of a source, simply use the first author’s last
name, followed by et al. (e.g. [Parsons et al. 1996]). This is Latin for “and others”. The complete list of
authors will appear in the full citation at the end of your paper.
Literature Cited or Bibliography
Your Literature Cited should appear in alphabetical order by first author, and by year if there are
multiple sources by the same author(s). Underline journal and book titles, but not the titles of individual
articles in journals or edited (multi-authored) books. Use the following as examples for citing various
kinds of sources (with thanks to M. Weis):
Citing Journal and Magazine Articles
â?¢ Format
Author(s). Publication year. Article title. Journal title volume: pages.
â?¢ Examples
Smith, D.C. and J. Van Buskirk. 1995. Phenotypic design, plasticity and ecological performance in
two tadpole species. American Naturalist 145: 211-233.
Ahlberg, P.E. 1990. Glimpsing the hidden majority. Nature 344: 23.
Epel, D. and R. Steinhardt. 1974. Activation of sea-urchin eggs by a calcium ionophore. Proc.
Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 71: 1915-1919.
Citing Sites on the Internet
Often electronic sources are a challenge to cite because they often lack critical information. You
should do your best to provide as much of the following as possible. The complete web address should
be presented so that anyone else could …
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