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I got some feedback , revise it by the prof ‘s comments!Add about 1 page, make it 10 full pages.And some sentences are repeating.Please fix it.Feedbackï¼?1: Why is this crucial? This is not obvious.2ï¼?This is actually an interesting argument and not obvious. If you are arguing that understanding the neuroscience of decisions can help us make better decisions.3: I’m not sure this fits here because it seems like it needs a lot of textual support, perhaps its own paragraph.4:Important – how does knowing this information help people make better decisions? This is crucial to support your thesis.5: how does knowing this help people make better decisions?6: Which studies? Cite them. v important to do this. this seems like a crucial point that should maybe come first before all the technical, anatomical neuroscience data.7: You’ve mentioned this many times but not explained how knowing this is supposed to help.8: source?9:It is really key to make the point that understanding the brain will help people make better decisions. You need to provide more textual support for this. Then in your analysis of specific findings, you need to show how this information could help people in their decision making.
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Last Name 1
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Effect of Neuroscience Findings on Decision Making
The decision neuroscience research is one of the most practical and advanced
technological advancements of this century. It has incorporated various techniques of
neuroscience as well as those of the social sciences in order to come up with satisfactory
information and concepts. Generally, it is crucial to keep in mind that having a critical
understanding of the neuroscience in decision making is the first step towards making the right
decisions. This research paper has presented the effects of neuroscience based decision making.
As a matter of fact, according to neuroscience, the processing of addressing making procedure is
very important in doing away with addiction and other bad habits that require decision making.
There is a strong correlation between the understandings which regards the concept of
neuroscience behind decision making that is the making of right choices. Decision making is a
power possessed by everyone. People have been vested with the power to do away with poor and
self-destructive habits by making the best decisions. The fundamental step in making good
decisions starts with understanding the neuroscience involved in the process of decision making.
Therefore, this understanding brings the link between poor decision making and the abnormal
interactions of the several brain regions that play critical roles in the process of decision making.
Further, making good decisions starts with the understanding that neuroscience is involved in the
process of decision making and also that poor decision making is a result of the abnormal
interactions of the brain cells. For instance, there is empirical research that shows a case in
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example that some poor decisions such as addiction come around due to abnormal responses of
the regions of the brain that are critical in the decision making process (Krueger). Obviously,
such poor decisions such as abuse of drugs cannot be considered to be a disease. It is absolutely
wrong to consider such a decision a disease. It is pretty much the same as when one decides to
jump out of a fast moving car. When there are faulty brain connections that are responsible for
decision making, one is likely to succumb to poor decisions. In an experimental setup whose
objective was to determine how faulty brain connections lead to poor decision making, cravings
of drugs like Nicotine can be possibly illuminated by the help of the functional Magnetic
Resonance Imaging (fMRI). In this regard, the effect of the brain trying to determine the cost and
value analysis is overridden by the value that is associated with cigarette smoking activities of
the brain parts of the people that do smoke cigarettes hence the poor decision is made.
There is also a link between poor and decision making with the abnormal interactions of
the several brain parts that play critical roles in the process of decision making because of the
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex refers to a brain region which
has been found to have a high regulatory effect as far as the craving of smoking is concerned.
For people who are easily swayed into making bad decisions about taking nicotine, there is a
high intensity as far as the imaging response of the brain is concerned. The results obtained from
the FMRI show a consistent behavior among the people that have made the poor decision to
regularly smoke cigarettes (Whalley). Therefore, the major findings point out to the fact that
there is a link between poor and decision making with the abnormal interactions of the several
brain regions that play critical roles in the process of decision making because there are aberrant
connections that exist between various brain regions and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
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amongst the individuals that are prone to addictive behavior which makes them to opt for the bad
decisions.
There is a link between poor and decision making with the abnormal interactions of the
several brain regions that play critical roles in the process of decision making as evidenced by
the role of the Striatum. As a matter of fact, the Striatum plays a big role as far as the whole
decision making process is concerned. Scientists have identified the fact that the most important
part of the human brain as far as the decision making process is concerned is the Striatum.
Interestingly, the Striatum appears to operate in a manner that can be described as being
hierarchical in its three divisions and each region operating independently. Most importantly, it
is critical to note that the Striatum forms the critical part of the basal ganglia, the inner core of
the brain that processes subsequent actions and decision making. There are three categories of thr
brain as far as the classification of the Striatum is concerned; the Ventral, the Dorsolateral and
the Dorsomedial. Each of the aforementioned regions plays a very critical role as far as the
whole idea of decision making is concerned; routine actions, adaptive decisions and even
motivation. Most importantly, it is critical to note that the three parts of the Striatum work
coherently in what can be described as a coordinated hierarchy. Despite the fact that each of the
parts of the Striatum has its different and distinct role, there is evidence to believe that they
actually work together when it comes to the process of decision making. The proof to that can be
linked to an experiment whereby the Ventral Striatum was identified to be the most active when
the process of decision making was initiated (Takahashi).
There is a link between poor and decision making with the abnormal interactions of the
several brain regions that play critical roles in the process of decision making because scientific
empirical studies have determine that the Ventral Striatum in particular is very critical as far as
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the whole decision making process is concerned. In the animal experiment, the Dorsomedial
striatum was observed to have changing firing levels. Similarly, the expected consequence or
reward made the decision to turn right or left in a maze. In the end, the dorsolateral striatum was
found to have fired short bursts at various times during the experiment. The implication of this
was that the geared motor movements were only required once for a decision to be made.
The implications of the findings of the aforementioned experiment is that the experiment
was able to analyze the potential advantages or benefits of choosing right turns or left turns
throughout the DMS phase. As a matter of fact, the analysis was analyzed for each and every
trial done during the experiment. The ultimate findings were a big difference between DLS and
DMS during the free-choice tasks in the study. Therefore, from studying the effects of the ventral
on the animals, the experiment gave a perspective of the manner in which humans can make
better decisions.
There is a link between poor and decision making with the abnormal interactions of the
several brain regions that play critical roles in the process of decision making because most of
the times, This findings mean that there are new avenues as far as the whole decision making
process is concerned as far as coming up with new therapies and medicine breakthrough is
concerned.
As mentioned earlier, the processing of addressing making procedure is very important in
doing away with addiction and other bad habits that require decision making. There is a strong
correlation between understandings of the neuroscience behind decision making the making the
right choices. There is enough reason to believe that some poor decisions such as addiction
come around due to abnormal responses of the regions of the brain that are critical in the
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decision making process. When there the brain connections that are responsible for decision
making are faulty, one is likely to succumb to poor decisions.
Specific parts of the brain are responsible for the connections that are critical in the
decision making process. One such example is the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex refers to a brain region which has been found to have a high
regulatory effect as far as the craving of smoking is concerned. This is because smoking has an
addictive nature and by continued habit of smoking then there is impairment in the brain neurons
which result in impairment in the normal operation of the brain activity. For people who are
easily swayed into making bad decisions about taking nicotine, there is a high intensity as far as
the imaging response of the brain is concerned.
Most importantly, it is critical to investigate the link between other parts of the brain
region that are responsible for the decision making process. One such part like the latter is the
striatum. Most importantly, it is critical to note that the Striatum forms the critical part of the
basal ganglia, the inner core of the brain that processes subsequent actions and decision making.
The Striatum plays a big role as far as the whole decision making process is concerned.
Interestingly, the Striatum appears to operate in a manner that can be described as the
hierarchical in its three sub-divisions which operate independently. Scientists have identified the
fact that the most important part of the human brain as far as the decision making process is
concerned is the Striatum.
Generally, most of the decisions that require self-control are crucial and act as the
determinants to a good life. In the animal experiment, the Dorsomedial striatum was observed to
have changing firing levels. The Ventral Striatum in particular is very critical as far as the whole
decision making process is concerned. Similarly, the expected consequence or reward made the
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decision to turn right or left in a maze. The determination that takes place as far as the brain
mechanisms are concerned not only consists of the decisions that require self-control but also for
those that require general decision making (Deco, and Rolls). In the end, the dorsolateral
striatum was found to have fired short bursts at various times during the experiment.
According to various studies, there is reason to understand the manner in which the
decision process takes place for one to be in a position to make better decisions. As mentioned
earlier, the major findings point out to the fact that there is a link between poor and decision
making with the abnormal interactions of the several brain regions that play critical roles in the
process of decision making because there are aberrant connections that exist between various
brain regions and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex amongst the individuals that are prone to
addictive behavior which makes them to opt for the bad decisions. This then prompts for a selfawareness campaign but exclusively meant for the purpose of educating people on the process of
decision making.
There is a link between neuroscience and poor decision making linked with brain
uncertainty. This indecision is an indication of lack of very crucial information that is necessary
and required in order to make the best decision. Such information that could be lacking include
the timing, content, worth among others. Human beings have always strived to eliminate the
levels of uncertainty effects when it comes to making decisions. The research done by Fiorillo
demonstrated that there is persistent activities of the dopaminergic neurons throughout
anticipation stages (Bechara et al). As a result, the decision that is made under the conditions of
anticipation is one that encompass a risk. Similar studies of decisions that are made when there is
such uncertainty relies on those participating making a choice as it would be the case when they
are subjected to uncertainty. Then, studies based on the collected data has indicated that this poor
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decision making that is characterized by its risk nature is associated with various parts of the
brain. This parts include the lateral prefrontal cortex, insular cortex and orbital prefrontal cortex.
When the decisions made are risky in their nature then the outcomes of such decision are risky in
nature (Bach et al). Therefore, this is a true demonstration of the impact of the neuroscience in
the decision making process.
Also, there exist a notable link between decision making and neuroscience as far as free
will is concerned. This has been made possible by the fact technology has created a platform to
study the brain. Research by scholars has given a deeper understanding on the impact of the free
will of neuroscience to the human consciousness as well as human moral behavior. Scholars
have proposed that that the often the human brain has a binding will towards some of the
decisions that are to be made by the mind prior to them being actually executed in the human
mind. This phenomenon shows that there exists a delay between the free will of the mind and the
real commitment of the human mind (Ariely et al) . Meanwhile, one of the researchers by the
name Itzhak Fried has established that the mindfulness usually follows the anticipated decision
that was to be made. In other words, the implication of His statement is that the commitment of
the free will of the mind comes way before the start of the process of decision making (Payne et
al). As one of the research advanced to proof the claim of the effect of decision making to the
issue of the free will of the brain is the Libet experiment in the 1980s. This was carried out by
Benjamin Libet. His conclusion supported the claim that the free will state of the brain was the
first to make the decisions of the mind before which they were being finally made by the
subconscious level of the human brain. This research was purely based on the philosophy of
neuroscience (Yechiam et al) . Based on this Libet experiment, the research came up with graphs
that generalize the overall spread of the reaction times for three unique observations.
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Figure 1: A graph of the results of Libet’s Experiment
This data from the Libetâ??s experiment helps us to draw the implications that the free will
of the brain has in the whole process of decision making. This is due to the characterized delay
that is experienced (Ranyard). However, this research has faced criticisms that moreso by
Huggard who advances the claim that there is no implication of the neuronal levels of the mind
in the decision making.
Another fundamental need of the decision neuroscience research is that it helps to
recognize the neural processes that model the specific behavior of a given individual. This
approach has suggested that the part of the brain that undergoes this decision process is the
brainâ??s dopaminergic system. This part is comprised of three regions i.e. ventral striatum,
ventromedial prefrontal cortex as well as the ventral tegmental area (Sanfey). Here the
dopaminergic neurons in the brain bulge to the striatum. Then the dopamine is utilized in the
process that involve and influence behavior.
Finally there is a strong link between the neuroscience that specifically focuses on
the brain character as well as cognitive roles, and how the leadership is practiced in our
day to day lives. Recent development in research has concluded that decision making is
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part of the cognitive function and forms a foundation for establishing life choices. Some
have categorically stated that our emotions can be attributed by the fact that they are
decided by the brain and therefore our decisions which are manifest of our character are
dependent on the neuroscience. The best way the strong relationship that exist between
decisions making in leadership as a direct influence of the neuroscience is by the study of
social cognitive functions.
The study of social cognitive neuroscience is basically the learning of the unique
attributes of leadership in combination with the subject of neuroscience. In this study of
the human interaction there is the underlying proposition that the human feelings, ideas
and objectives are all determined on a neural basis. The features that are required for an
effective leader such as self-control, presentation, problem solving, consistency and
management are also a function of the neural decision making. The neuroscience has more
often than not linked these requirements of a good leader to the process of decision
making. Also neuroscientists examine the brain on the basis of the independent functions
of the neurons. This is the aspect that in one way or another, the brain of someone who is in
the position of leadership must be triggered and be swayed by that independent
functioning of the brain neurons in order to come up with a given decision (Yousaf et al). In
effect, the neuroscience has influenced the decision making in those who are in the position
of leadership.
In conclusion, the fundamental step in making good decisions starts with understanding
the neuroscience involved in the process of decision making. There is a link between poor and
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decision making with the abnormal interactions of the several brain regions that play critical
roles in the process of decision making. Making good decisions starts with understanding the
neuroscience involved in the process of decision making because poor decision making is a
result of the abnormal interactions of the brain cells. There is a link between poor and decision
making with the abnormal interactions of the several brain regions that play critical roles in the
process of decision making because of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. There is a link between
poor and decision making with the abnormal interactions of the several brain regions that play
critical roles in the process of decision making as evidenced by the role of the Striatum.
Last Name 11
Works Cited
Ariely, Dan, and Dan Zakay. “A timely account of the role of duration in decision making.” Acta
psychologica 108.2 (2001): 187-207.
Bach, Dominik R., Ben Seymour, and Raymond J. Dolan. “Neural activity associated with the
passive prediction of ambiguity and risk for aversive events.” Journal of Neuroscience 29.6
(2009): 1648-1656.
Bechara, Antoine, et al. “Different contributions of the human amygdala and ventromedial
prefrontal cortex to decision-making.” Journal of Neuroscience 19.13 (1999): 5473-5481.
Deco, Gustavo, and Edmund T. Rolls. “Decision-Making and Weber’s Law: A
Neurophysiological Model”. European Journal of Neuroscience, vol 24, no. 3, 2012, pp.
901-916. Wiley, doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2006.04940.x.
Gruart, Agnes, Warren H. Meck, and Valerie Doyere. “Interval timing and time-based decision
making.” Frontiers in integrative neuroscience 6 (2012): 13.
Krueger, Deborah L. “Ethical Decision Making in Neurosurgery”. Journal of Neuroscience
Nursing, vol 40, no. 6, 2012, pp. 346-349. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health),
doi:10.1097/01376517-200812000-00006.
Payne, John W., James R. Bettman, and Eric J. Johnson. The adaptive decision maker.
Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Ranyard, Rob, W. Ray Crozier, and Ola Svenson, eds. Decision making: Cognitive models and
explanations. Vol. 1. Psychology Press, 1997.
Sanfey, Alan G. “Social decision-making: insights from game theory and neuroscience.” Science
318.5850 (2007): 598-602.
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Sanfey, Alan G., et al. “Neuroeconomics: cross-currents in research on decision-making.” Trends
in cognitive sciences 10.3 (2006): 108-116.
Takahashi, Hidehiko. “Molecular Neuroimaging Of Emotional Decision-Making”. Neuroscience
Research, vol 71, 2011, pp. e32-e33. Elsevier BV, doi:10.1016/j.neures.2011.07.140.
Whalley, Katherine. “Decision Making: Making Hasty Decisions”. Nature Reviews
Neuroscience, vol 18, no. 10, 2017, pp. 569-569. Springer Nature,
doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.116.
Yechiam, Eldad, et al. “Using cognitive models to map relations between neurops …
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