Scholarly Article Annotation. a minimum of a 150-word summary of the content

Attached is the scholarly article 2-3 sentences conveying why this source in useful to your revised essay Your annotation should include:
A complete APA citation of your scholarly article
A paragraph of summary of the key points presented in your source
A paragraph explaining the sourceâ??s quality and how it is relevant to your analytical essay( my essay was the same topic as this article ” A good man is hard to find)
Here is an example of an annotated APA entry (not an actual source): Smith, A. (2016). Journey into the unknown. American Literature, 22(3), 4-5.This article compares Nathaniel Hawthorneâ??s â??Young Goodman Brownâ? and Eudora Weltyâ??s â??A Worn Path,â? discussing the protagonistsâ?? journeys as a focal point. The article examines these two main characters and their different paths in life. Those paths led Young Goodman Brown and Phoenix Jackson into the forest on very different quests, but both were determined to take these journeys that were emotional, meaningful, and dangerous.Smithâ??s article offered a fascinating perspective on the motives and outcomes of these two disparate characters and their life paths that led them into the unknown. I gained a better understanding of my character, Phoenix Jackson, by reading this article and contrasting her with Young Goodman Brown. There are several quotations and ideas I will be able to incorporate into my final draft.
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A Good Man is Hard to Find
by Flannery Oâ??Connor
that the house she was thinking of was actually in
Tennessee, not Georgia. As she remembers, her
cat jumps out of the basket onto Bailey and he
crashes the car into a ditch. Everyone is relatively
unharmed but they are now stranded. The children
shout excitedly, â??Weâ??ve had an ACCIDENT!â?
while the adults shake with fear (Oâ??Connor 683).
While they await assistance, a car with three men
inside approaches them. The driver of the car, a
shirtless middle-aged man in â??scholarlyâ? looking
wire-rimmed glasses, turns out to be The Misfit
(Oâ??Connor 684).
The Misfitâ??s two sidekicks, Hiram and Bobby
Lee, take Bailey and his son off into the woods
and gunshots are heard shortly after. The grandmother grieves for him shouting, â??Bailey boy!â?
but then tries to flatter The Misfit to save herself
(Oâ??Connor 686). She tells him that he is not a bit
â??commonâ? and asks him if he prays. When he
says no, she tries to convince him that prayer will
help to set him on the righteous path. The Misfit
then has Hiram and Bobby Lee take the mother,
her baby and June Star off to the woods and three
shots are heard. The grandmother continues to
try to save herself. She begs The Misfit to pray
and spare her life. She has a moment of heartfelt empathy for him at the end when she reaches
out to touch him and calls him one of her babies,
but he shoots her three times and has his partners
throw her body in the woods (688). The story
Content Synopsis
A disconnected family goes on a vacation from
Atlanta to Florida. The children, John Wesley and
June Star, are wild and inconsiderate; their parents apathetic. The grandmother complains about
the changing times and lack of respect of people
today. She tries to convince her son Bailey to take
the family to Tennessee instead of Florida so she
can visit relatives. She brings up the fact that an
escaped convict called The Misfit is on the loose
and headed towards Florida, but he ignores her and
they take their trip. To spite Bailey and comfort
herself, the grandmother brings her cat and hides
it in a basket. While driving through Georgia, the
grandmother reminisces about the people and places
from days gone by. They stop at an old-fashioned
barbecue for lunch and the grandmother and the
restaurant owner, Red Sam, shake their heads
over the changing times and how hard it is to trust
people. Red Sam declares that, â??a good man is
hard to findâ? (Oâ??Connor 681).
As the family drives on, they pass a dirt road,
and the grandmother remembers an old plantation house from her younger years and asks Bailey
to drive by it. She exaggerates about secret compartments in the house to get the grandchildren
interested in seeing it. They kick and scream until
Bailey finally relents and turns down the dirt road
she thinks the house is on. As they travel down
the long, desolate road, the grandmother realizes
81
081-086_A_Good_Man.indd 81
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82
|â?? â??â??Introduction to Literary Context: American Short Fiction
ends as The Misfit declares, â??Itâ??s no real pleasure
in life� (689).
Symbols & Motifs
The aptly named character of The Misfit serves
as a symbol both of evil as well as a symbol of
the villainâ??s inability to fit into society. The family
also represents a bunch of misfits as demonstrated
through their ungratefulness and disregard for
otherâ??s emotions. The mother ignores her children
except for her baby; the children have no qualms
about littering and talking back to adults. The family is living without really being aware of the fact
that life is precious.
The vacation that the family is taking also has
symbolic significance as a journey away from
their familiar surroundings. The fact that the family is going further South might be indicative of the
direction they are heading in the afterlife. Even their
stop along the way at Red Samâ??s resembles a place
of purgatory (â??Flannery Oâ??Connor and â??A Good
Man is Hard to Findâ??â?). The grandmother revisits
moments of her life as the family drives along on
their way to Florida and is the only family member
who seems to learn anything on the road of life.
The charactersâ?? names act as symbols as well.
John Wesley, the hostile, loud-mouthed child, is
named after the founder of the Methodist religion
(â??Flannery Oâ??Connor and â??A Good Man is Hard to
Findâ??â?). June Star, the bratty, selfish sister of John,
has a name that resembles a starlet of the 30â??s
or 40â??s, aptly demonstrated at Red Samâ??s in her
demand for a song she could dance to (â??Flannery
Oâ??Connor and â??A Good Man is Hard to Findâ??â?).
The childrenâ??s mother ironically is given no name
and their father is given a generic one. The grandmother is not given a name as her identity is that of
the family elder.
Historical Context
Flannery Oâ??Connor takes special care in presenting the differences between the old generation
081-086_A_Good_Man.indd 82
of Southern gentility and the current (1950â??s)
generation, which is more abrasive and fast-paced.
A personal history is explored as the grandmother
reflects on plantation homes, unpaved roads and
formal clothing while riding with her son and his
young family on a highway to the trendy vacation
spot of Florida. The grandmother appears to be
struggling with the changes occurring throughout
the time period. These changes are reflected in her
children and grandchildren.
In the 1950s, the population was growing
and expansion of cities and suburbs was occurring across the country while farmland began to
decrease. The advent of rock nâ?? roll music fed the
desire of the nationâ??s young people to rebel against
their parentsâ?? traditional values. Clothing became
more colorful and casual. Restaurant and entertainment chains multiplied, leaving the traditional
â??mom and popâ? joints, like Red Samâ??s, to fade
away. In addition, the rise of communism and the
threat of espionage and nuclear war led to a population filled with fear and uncertainty.
Societal Context
This story presents a contrast between the grandmotherâ??s generation and that of her children and
grandchildren. Both generations are depicted as
imperfect. The grandmother is unknowingly racist;
the children are unknowingly inconsiderate to their
elders. The grandmother tells her grandchildren
that they have no respect for anything these days,
which is true as seen in their speech and actions
such as trying to throw trash out the car window.
However, in the next breath the grandmother
shouts, â??Oh look at the cute little pickaninny!â? and
â??Little niggers in the country donâ??t have things like
we do� in reference to a black child they happen
to drive past (Oâ??Connor 679). Flannery Oâ??Connor
acknowledged in her essay â??The Element of Suspense in â??A Good Man is Hard to Findâ??â? that the old
woman resembles a Southern stereotype and said
that most Southern readers have an older relative
19/10/13 12:18 AM
A Good Man is Hard to Find
who resembles the grandmother. She retains elements of Southern hospitality and manners, but it
is exclusive to non-common folk and those of the
white race. She is ignorant of her own ignorance.
The fact that the whole family dies at the hands
of The Misfit and his random violence parallels the
authorâ??s own belief that society (in the 1950â??s) was
going fiercely downhill. Even the innocent baby
is murdered. The Misfit is the epitome of everything that is wrong with society. He lacks faith,
manners, and has no respect for laws and moral
standards of any kind. His appearance is a contradiction in itself. He is middle-aged, graying and
wearing scholarly glasses, yet he is shirtless and
is wearing tight jeans. He agrees with the grandmother on many levels and entertains her talk of
Jesus but shoots her without thought as soon as she
tries to get close to him. He represents the hypocrisy of both the older and younger generations, but
his dominance in the story reveals an apocalyptic
glimpse of the future.
Religious Context
Flannery Oâ??Connor was known to be a devoutly
pious Roman Catholic and Christian principles
are present in all of her work. In â??A Good Man is
Hard to Findâ? Oâ??Connor wrestles with the nature
of good and evil, but even more so, presents the
reality that most people stumble through life on a
less than righteous path. Bailey and his wife and
children appear consumed with their own desires
and have little concern for others. The grandmother, as unlikable as she is, is the only character
reflective enough to see how far removed society
is from what really matters in life. In her essay
on this story, Oâ??Connor states, â??The heroine, the
Grandmother, is in the most significant position
life offers the Christian. She is facing death. And
to all appearances she, like the rest of us, is not
too well prepared for itâ? (Oâ??Connor 704). â??A Good
Man is Hard to Find� is a story that reminds the
reader that evil does exist in the world and the day
081-086_A_Good_Man.indd 83
|
83
of judgment is always just around the corner. The
story forces the reader to take a second look at his
or her own life and ask the questionâ??am I ready?
This story first appeared in a collection by the
same name with the following quote from St. Cyril
of Jerusalem as an opening, â??The dragon is by the
side road, watching those who pass. Beware lest
he devour you. We go to the father of souls, but it
is necessary to pass by the dragon� (Drake 187).
Whether the dragon is the devil or Christ is up for
debate, but regardless, according to Oâ??Connor, this
figure is watching and judging us all.
The Misfit and his sidekicks represent the
embodiment of evil and The Misfit could be compared to the devil, but even he seems more human
and complex than that. The Misfit is troubled by
the evil in the world even though he is a contributor. He more likely represents one more troubled
soul on earth that lacks religion.
Scientific & Technological Context
â??A Good Man is Hard to Findâ? does not have a
specific scientific or technological context.
Biographical Context
Mary Flannery Oâ??Connor was born in Savannah,
GA in 1925 and spent much of her life in Milledgeville, GA until her death in 1964 (Goia & Gwinn
677). She graduated from Georgia State College
for Women in 1945 and earned her MFA from the
University of Iowa in 1947 (Goia & Gwinn 677).
In 1950, she was diagnosed with lupus and shortly
thereafter she moved in with her mother in Milledgeville (Goia & Gwinn 677).
Even though she was raised in the South, which is
predominantly Protestant, Flannery Oâ??Connor was a
devout Roman Catholic (Goia & Gwinn 677). Her
religious views colored her work as she viewed contemporary Southern society with growing disdain.
The voice in her work is extremely moralist, wryly
satiric and highly critical of the decline of Southern
â??mysteries and mannersâ? (Goia & Gwinn 677).
19/10/13 12:18 AM
84
|â?? â??â??Introduction to Literary Context: American Short Fiction
She has been described as a Southern Gothic writer
because of the violence and moral confusion of her
characters (Goia & Gwinn 677).
In her lifetime, Oâ??Connor published two novels, â??Wise Bloodâ? in 1952, and â??The Violent Bear
It Away� in 1960, as well as a collection of short
stories, â??A Good Man is Hard to Findâ? in 1955.
After her death, the short story collection, â??Everything that Rises Must Convergeâ? was published
in 1965 and a collection of essays â??Mysteries and
Mannersâ? was published in 1969. â??The Complete
Stories of Flannery Oâ??Connorâ? won the National
Book Award in 1971.
Jennifer Bouchard
Works Cited
Clark, Beverly Lyon. Flannery Oâ??Connor.
Georgetown University. 15 January 2008.
Drake, Robert. â??The Bleeding Stinking Mad
Shadow of Jesus in the Fiction of Flannery
081-086_A_Good_Man.indd 84
Oâ??Connor.â? Comparative Literature Studies,
Vol. 3, No. 2, 1966, pp. 183â??96.
â??Flannery Oâ??Connorâ??s A Good Man is Hard to Find:
Whoâ??s the Real Misfit?â? National Endowment
for the Humanities. 15 January 2008.
â??Flannery Oâ??Connor and â??A Good Man is Hard to
Find.â??â? Tyler Junior College. 15 January 2008.
Gioia, Dana and R.S. Gwynn, eds. The Art of the
Short Story. New York, Pearson Longman, 1992.
Oâ??Connor, Flannery. â??A Good Man is Hard to
Find.� Eds. Dana Gioia and R.S. Gwynn. The
Art of the Short Story. New York, Pearson
Longman, 1992.
Oâ??Connor, Flannery. â??The Element of Suspense in
â??A Good Man is Hard to Findâ??â? Eds. Dana Gioia
and R.S. Gwynn. The Art of the Short Story.
New York, Pearson Longman, 1992.
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A Good Man is Hard to Find
|
85
Discussion Questions
1. How would you characterize the grandmother?
2. How would you describe the rest of the family?
3. What is the significance of the title of the
story, â??A Good Man is Hard to Findâ??
4. What purpose do names serve in this story?
Who is not given a name? Why?
5. What are some examples of foreshadowing
in the family?
6. How does Oâ??Connor describe the cultural
and physical landscape of the setting?
081-086_A_Good_Man.indd 85
7. How does Oâ??Connor distinguish between
the old and new South?
8. What are some differences between the
grandmother and the mother?
9. Who is the real Misfit in the story?
10. What is the significance of the discussion of
Jesus?
11. What are the main themes of the story?
19/10/13 12:18 AM
86
|â?? â??â??Introduction to Literary Context: American Short Fiction
Essay Ideas
1. Write an essay in which you argue that the
grandmother is the hero of the story. Use
examples of the text to support your claims.
2. Analyze Oâ??Connorâ??s use of humor in â??A
Good Man Is Hard To Find.� Be sure to discuss
how she balances humor with the grotesque.
3. Investigate Oâ??Connorâ??s use of symbolism in
the story. Be sure to include The Misfit and
the road as symbols.
081-086_A_Good_Man.indd 86
4. Discuss the presence of contrasts in the story.
What purpose might these contrasts serve in
terms of the overall message of the story?
Use examples from the story to support your
analyses.
5. Write an essay in which you analyze all of
the Christian allusions and images in the
story. Discuss how they contribute to the key
themes.
19/10/13 12:18 AM
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