Short Answer Questions II

In a Word document, provide short answers to the questions below. Each answer should be 250-300 words in length.What role does technology play in emotional and mental status testing?What are the strengths and challenges in interpreting and reporting results via the use of a computer-aided assessment tool?Technological advances that assist with interpreting and reporting results should only be used as a “tool” by the counselor. Why this is the case? Provide at least two examples.What are some concerns regarding the use of social media, especially in relation to maintaining professional status within the counseling field?While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.Attached textGroth-Marnat, G., & Wright, A.
(2016). Handbook of psychological
assessment (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

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Sixth Edition
Gary Groth-Marnat and A. Jordan Wright
Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Copyright © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.
Published simultaneously in Canada.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:
Names: Groth-Marnat, Gary, author. | Wright, A. Jordan, author.
Title: Handbook of psychological assessment / Gary Groth-Marnat and A. Jordan
Description: Sixth edition. | Hoboken, New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
[2016] | Includes index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2015042889 (print) | LCCN 2016000499 (ebook) | ISBN
9781118960646 (cloth) | ISBN 9781118960684 (pdf) | ISBN 9781118960653
Subjects: LCSH: Psychological tests. | Personality assessment.
Classification: LCC BF176 .G76 2016 (print) | LCC BF176 (ebook) | DDC
LC record available at
Cover Image: © 501room/Shutterstock
Cover Design: Wiley
Printed in the United States of America
HB Printing 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Preface xi
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Organization of the Handbook 1
Role of the Clinician 3
Patterns of Test Usage in Clinical Assessment 6
Evaluating Psychological Tests 10
Validity in Clinical Practice 23
Clinical Judgment 26
Phases in Clinical Assessment 32
Recommended Reading 37
Chapter 2 Context of Clinical Assessment 39
Types of Referral Settings 39
Ethical Practice of Assessment 50
Assessing Diverse Groups 59
Selecting Psychological Tests 67
Computer-Assisted Assessment 72
Recommended Reading 74
Chapter 3 The Assessment Interview 77
History and Development 78
Issues Related to Reliability and Validity 82
Assets and Limitations 84
The Assessment Interview and Case History 86
Mental Status Evaluation 93
Interpreting Interview Data 99
Structured Interviews 100
Recommended Reading 111
Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
vi Contents
Chapter 4 Behavioral Assessment 113
History and Development 115
Issues Related to Reliability and Validity 117
Assets and Limitations 120
Strategies of Behavioral Assessment 121
Recommended Reading 136
Chapter 5 Wechsler Intelligence Scales 139
Testing of Intelligence: Pros and Cons 139
History and Development 142
Reliability and Validity 147
Assets and Limitations 151
Use with Diverse Groups 153
Meaning of IQ Scores 156
Cautions and Guidelines in Administration 159
WAIS-IV/WISC-V Successive-Level Interpretation Procedure 161
Wechsler Indexes and Subtests 173
Assessing Brain Damage 196
Assessing Additional Special Populations 204
Short Forms 209
Recommended Reading 213
Chapter 6 Wechsler Memory Scales 215
History and Development 216
Reliability and Validity 222
Assets and Limitations 224
Use with Diverse Groups 226
Interpretation Procedure 227
Interpreting Patterns of Index Scores 230
Comparing Scores on the WAIS-IV and the WMS-IV 238
Additional Considerations: Malingering and Evaluating Change 241
Recommended Reading 242
Chapter 7 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 243
History and Development 246
Reliability and Validity 251
Assets and Limitations 255
Use with Diverse Groups 259
Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Contents vii
Administration 262
MMPI-2 Interpretation Procedure 263
MMPI-2 Computerized Interpretation 272
MMPI-2 Validity Scales 273
MMPI-2 Clinical Scales 279
MMPI-2 2-Point Codes 302
MMPI-2 Content Scales 328
MMPI-A Content Scales 331
MMPI-2 Harris-Lingoes and Si Subscales 334
MMPI-2 Critical Items 337
MMPI-2 and MMPI-A Supplementary Scales 338
MMPI-2-RF Interpretation Procedure 341
MMPI-2-RF Validity Scales 346
MMPI-2-RF Higher-Order Scales 353
MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical Scales 355
MMPI-2-RF Specific Problem Scales 361
Interest Scales 366
MMPI-2-RF Personality Psychopathology Five Scales 366
Recommended Reading 370
Chapter 8 Personality Assessment Inventory 371
History and Development 373
Reliability and Validity 373
Assets and Limitations 375
Use with Diverse Groups 377
Interpretation Procedure 377
Validity Scales 380
Clinical Scales 384
Treatment Scales 404
Interpersonal Scales 408
Additional Clusters 410
Critical Items 415
Recommended Reading 416
Chapter 9 Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory 417
History and Development 419
Reliability and Validity 424
Assets and Limitations 427
Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
viii Contents
Use with Diverse Groups 431
Interpretation Procedure 432
Validity Scales 436
Clinical Personality Patterns 439
Severe Personality Pathology 476
Clinical Syndromes 486
Severe Syndromes 488
Recommended Reading 488
Chapter 10 NEO Personality Inventory 489
History and Development 490
Reliability and Validity 491
Assets and Limitations 493
Use with Diverse Groups 494
Interpretation Procedure 495
Recommended Reading 512
Chapter 11 The Rorschach 513
History and Development 514
Reliability and Validity 518
Assets and Limitations 523
Use with Diverse Groups 527
Comprehensive System: Administration 528
Comprehensive System: Coding 531
Comprehensive System: Scoring the Structural Summary 536
Comprehensive System: Interpretation 539
R-PAS: Administration 581
R-PAS: Coding 584
R-PAS: Scoring the Structural Summary 592
R-PAS: Interpretation 593
Recommended Reading 614
Chapter 12 Screening for Neuropsychological Impairment 615
History and Development 617
Interviewing for Brain Impairment 620
Domains of Neuropsychological Functioning 624
Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, Second Edition 633
Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Contents ix
Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological
Status Update 645
Recommended Reading 652
Chapter 13 Brief Instruments for Treatment Planning,
Monitoring, and Outcome Assessment 653
Selecting Brief Instruments 654
Symptom Checklist-90-R and Brief Symptom Inventory 655
Beck Depression Inventoryâ??II 662
State Trait Anxiety Inventory 666
Recommended Reading 670
Chapter 14 Treatment Planning and Clinical Decision Making 671
Development and Approaches to Treatment Planning 672
Intervention Options 677
Clinical Decision Making 679
Case Formulation 680
Understanding the Problems 683
Understanding Problem Context 692
Treatment-Specific Client Characteristics 696
The Systematic Treatment Selection (STS)/Innerlife Approach 703
Recommended Reading 705
Chapter 15 The Psychological Report 707
General Guidelines 708
Feedback 728
Format for a Psychological Report 730
Sample Reports 743
Recommended Reading 772
Appendix A Test Publishers/Distributors 773
Appendix B Testing Organizations 777
References 779
Author Index 857
Subject Index 895
Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Thank you so much for your support in buying and reading this book. Our intention
has been to create a resource that will cover the A to Z of assessment. In other
words, our aim has been to provide guidance that includes larger issues on assessment
as well as specific stages in the assessment process, from clarifying the referral question
through writing up the report and providing feedback and consulting with your
referral sources and clients.We hope it brings clarity, practical guidelines, insights, and
useful strategies to your work. Feedback on the previous editions assures us that this
is often the case. This fact makes it worth the many long hours hidden away inside a
small room incubating ideas and reading, writing, revising, and editing.
As with the previous editions, we have tried to integrate the best of science with
the best of practice. Necessarily, psychological assessment involves technical knowledge.
But in presenting this technical knowledge, we have tried to isolate, extract, and
summarize in as clear a manner as possible the core information that is required for
practitioners to function competently. At the same time, assessment is also about the
very human side of understanding, helping, and making decisions about people. We
hope we have been able to comfortably blend this technical (science) side with the
human. An assessment that does not have at least some heart to it is cold and falls
short in understanding the experience of the client. To keep in touch with the practitioner/
human side of assessment, we have continually maintained active assessment
practices in which we have tried to stay close to and interact with the ongoing personal
and professional challenges of practitioners. We hope that within and between
the sentences in the book, our active involvement with theworld of practice is apparent.
It has been seven years since the previous (fifth) edition was published. During that
time, much has changed but much has remained the same. The big tests that professional
psychologists use most frequently are somewhat different, and this is reflected
in changes to this sixth edition. This includes eliminating the chapter on the California
Psychological Inventory and replacing it with the more widely used NEO Personality
Inventoryâ??3.While both focus on normal personality traits, the NEO is based on the
strongly empirically supported five-factor model of personality. Additionally, this edition
has eliminated the chapter on the Thematic Apperception Test. Although its use
in clinical practice is unclear (anecdotally it seems still to be relatively widely used),
the test itself has suffered from the lack of consensus on a coding and scoring protocol
and a subsequent lack of strong, consistent empirical support. In place of this chapter,
we have included a chapter on the Personality Assessment Inventory, which has gained
both strong empirical support and wide clinical popularity.
In addition to these major changes in tests covered, there are important changes
within other chapters. The chapter on the Wechsler Intelligence Scales includes
Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
xii Preface
updated information on the newly developedWechsler Intelligence Scale for Children,
Fifth Edition (WISC-V). Additionally, two chapters have been significantly expanded
because each test has two alternate forms, both of which currently are in wide
use. Specifically, the chapter on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
includes information on both the MMPI-2 and the MMPI-2â??Restructured Form
(MMPI-2-RF), and the chapter on the Rorschach includes information on both the
Comprehensive System and the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS).
For both of these tests, the next 10 or so years may see the field lean toward one or
the other form of the tests, but at the moment the field is split, and both versions of
both tests are widely used. Finally, we have worked to strengthen the sections on â??Use
with Diverse Groups,� which reflect the more extensive use of assessment for a wide
variety of populations and the importance of competently and sensitively working
with diverse populations.
There are also many smaller changes throughout this sixth edition. It has been
fully updated with new research in the field. There has also been greater emphasis on
making assessment more user friendly and consumer oriented. This is reflected in suggestions
for using everyday language in reports, connecting interpretations to actual
client behavior, strategies for wording interpretations in a manner likely to enhance
client growth, and the importance of collaborating with clients. The treatment planning
and clinical decision making chapter has been completely updated, and the psychological
report writing chapter has been updated to include current thinking of the
American Psychological Association and the Society for Personality Assessment about
proficiency in personality assessment.We hope that these changes will provide readers
with the best, most current, and most practical of what can be available in assessment.
The development of the Handbook of Psychological Assessment has been a group
effort. It started many years ago with ideas and cowriting with Gary Groth-Marnatâ??s
colleague Dorothy Morena. We wanted to develop a resource that would assist students
with all phases of psychological assessment. Our sincere thanks to her. A series
of editors at John Wiley & Sons have been invaluable, including Herb Reich, Jennifer
Simon, Tracey Belmont, Lisa Gebo, Peggy Alexander, and Marquita Flemming. We
have very much enjoyed and appreciated our relationship with Wiley; not only have
we been treated as respected authors, but they have also welcomed us into the Wiley
â??family.â? Colleagues who have provided valuable input include Steve Smith, Larry
Beutler, Steve Finn, AlanKaufman, Dawn Flanagan, Greg Meyer, Joni Mihura, Aasha
Foster, and the invaluable and nonstop list of articles from the Kenneth Pope website
and listerv. Seth Grossman, C. J. Thompson, and their colleagues at Pearson Assessment
were extremely helpful and generous in supplying us with advance information
on the MCMI-IV. Finally, much of our professional work is devoted toward helping
students to achieve the best of what they are capable of. In return, working with them
has inevitably helped us refine this sixth edition. Finally, we would like to dedicate the
sixth edition to Garyâ??s parents, Barbara and Rudy, in memoriam, as well as to Jordanâ??s
husband, Matt, and daughter, Millie, for their unwavering support.
Gary Groth-Marnat and A. Jordan Wright
July 28, 2015
Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Chapter 1
The Handbook of Psychological Assessment is designed to develop a high level of
practitioner competence by providing relevant, practical research, and theoretical
information. It can serve as both a reference and an instructional guide. As a reference
book, it aids in test selection and the development of a large number and variety of
interpretive hypotheses. As an instructional text, it provides students with the basic
tools for conducting an integrated psychological assessment. The significant and overriding
emphasis in this book is on assessing areas that are of practical use in evaluating
individuals in a clinical context. It is applied in its orientation, and, for the most part,
theoretical discussion has been kept to a minimum. Many books written on psychological
testing and the courses organized around these books focus primarily on test theory,
with a brief overview of a large number of tests. In contrast, the intent of this book is
to focus on the actual processes that practitioners go through during assessment. We
begin with such issues as role clarification and evaluation of the referral question and
end with treatment planning and the actual preparation of the report itself.
One of the crucial skills that we hope readers of this text will develop, or at least
have enhanced, is a realistic appreciation of the assets and limitations of assessment.
This includes an appraisal of psychological assessment as a general strategy as well
as an awareness of the assets and limitations of specific instruments and procedures.
A primary limitation of assessment lies in the incorrect handling of the data, which are
not integrated in the context of other sources of information (behavioral observations,
history, other test scores). Also, the results are not presented in a way that helps solve
the unique problems clients or referral sources are confronting. To counter these
the text continually provides practitioners with guidelines for integrating and
presenting the data in as useful a manner as possible. The text is thus not only a book
on test interpretation (although this is an important component) but on test integration
within the wider context of assessment. As a result, psychologists should be able
to create reports that are accurate, effective, concise, and highly valued by the persons
who receive them.
The central organizational plan for the Handbook of Psychological Assessment
replicates the sequence practitioners follow when performing an evaluation. They
are initially concerned with clarifying their roles, ensuring that they understand all
the implications of the referral question, deciding which procedures would be most
appropriate for the assessment, and reminding themselves of the potential problems
Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
2 Introduction
associated with clinical judgment (this chapter). They also need to understand the
context in which they will conduct the assessment. This understanding includes appreciating
the issues, concerns, terminology, and likely roles of the persons from these
contexts. Practitioners also must follow clear ethical guidelines, know how to work
with persons from diverse backgrounds, and recognize issues related to computerassisted
assessment and the ways that the preceding factors might influence their
selection of procedures (see Chapter 2).
Once practitioners have fully understood the preliminary issues discussed in this
chapter and Chapter 2, they must select different strategies of assessment. The three
major strategies are interviewing, observing behavior, and psychological testing. An
interview is likely …
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