I want you to write the final draft of the synthesis paper. I have the feedback
of the draft one from my professor (in blue colors). Please read them carefully. I need the
introduction of this paper, rather than just the summary (you can see it in the file). The connection is
very important, how can they relate to each other. Please focus on the claim
and connect them. I need a whole completely paper, not bits and pieces. Please help
me to improve it. I have the introduction attached below and three articles. I want the deep analysis (writing styles processes, tone, evidence..) I want you combining multiples sources around a central topic. Thanks~~
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Technology and its impact on our Lives
(Where is your introduction? This seems like a summary paragraph of Carr.)
The 21st century has welcomed a new era of reading where people from all over the world
can access different sources of information from the click of a button, following a link or even
from the comfort of their smartphones due to the worldwide evolution of technology. In the 90s
and 80s, people would get immersed in reading long articles and books strolling through different
stretches of prose without breaking a sweat. Nicolas Carr clearly laments this disappointing fact.
He alludes the new era of reading and information gathering is â??changingâ?? his brain, not necessarily
destroying it. He confesses that he â??does not think the way he used toâ?? and this fact is greatly
demonstrated when he reads. He confesses that his concentration drifts after two or three pages of
reading any literary piece of work. He attributes this new-found limitation in concentration to the
ease with which one can gather a colossal amount of information compressed in the form of a few
webpages, landing pages and hyperlinks. For almost a decade now, most of us spend time surfing
the net, and the internet has made it easier for us to take less time to conduct researches that would
have carried more time before to do in the library can now happen in a few minutes or hours.
This advantage creates more time for the numerous practices we have all day from our text
message chats, sending emails, going through different social media platforms and the likes. The
internet has become the medium through which pieces of information flow through from the
sources to our eyes all the way to our minds. With less time, people spend on books, the art of
reading and writing is slowly diminishing. An excellent example of this scenario is the existence
if limited character space in most of the social media platforms and the continued use of
abbreviations while communicating. However, the use of these abbreviations does not mean that
the average youth does not have their fair share of writing. This difference exists because there is
a record that this generation writes fairly more than other age that has been there because of the
numerous chats and communication people have through the internet.
(How is Thompson connected to Carr?)Clive Thompson(To this point, you have only
discussed Carr without integrating any other sources.) states at the beginning of every school year,
you will come around pundits fretting about how kids today cannot write. He writes the reason for
this is, social media platforms like Facebook, power point presentations and Twitter have replaced
well-crafted essays, and texting reduces formal language to what professor John Sutherland
describes as bleak, sad shorthand. However, some people, like Andrea Lunsford, are of the opinion
that the internet is a literacy revolution, saying that technology is not destroying the human ability
to read and write but pushing the strength in other positive directions. According to Andrea
Lunsford, a writing and rhetoric professor at the Stanford University, she believes that the
advancement of technology is pushing the human ability to read and write in more positive
directions. As per the results of a study she conducted from 2001 to 2006, most of the writing
sample she collected from her students shows that the youth of today write more than the people
who are from the previous generation. Unlike their predecessors who did most of their writing in
the classroom, the majority of literature that approximately 40% of the population does nowadays
happens outside classrooms. This difference is because in the past people did not write much
outside the school unless it was homework or one had a job requiring them to produce text
However, there is still a group of people who feel that technology advancement does affect
the way we write, but affects how we express ourselves to each other on different issues. Form her
study between 2001 and 2006, Andrea Lunsford found out that in the past one could differentiate
between a formal letter sent to a teacher and a simple message sent to a friend. This difference was
visible as one could see the formality used in addressing the main points in the letter to the teacher,
and there was no formal arrangement of main points on the message to a friend since the writers
had their way of putting across the main points without having to follow a given formality
necessarily. Andrea believes that students nowadays do not put the same emphasis in writing
formal letters as before. As much as the idea is not as bad as it looks, the students nowadays have
managed to acquire a way of adding the man points to the narrative and keeping the essays as
impressive as they can. However, Andrea believes teachers should be in a position to teach the
students when and where the line between informal and formal writing happens to depend on the
audience. Andrea describes the nature of the audience, which has the ability to scrutinize and
assess information in real time, about real life issues as the major cause of the diminishing â??efforts
students put in writing formal letters. Which, according to her, is a revolution of writing and
reading, as opposed to destruction of the same, as the people who disagree with her tend to think.
According to one Nicholas Carr in his article â??is Google making us stupid?â? he believes
that he does not seem to be thinking in the same way he used to before. As he states in his article,
he used to be a deep reader, and he would spend hours reading long articles and books, and this
would catch up his mind in the narrative and prose helping him understand the turns of the
arguments even better. But ever since the era of Google, he now lost his concentration way easily
after reading about two to three pages. Nicolas believes that the use of the internet has affected his
mental habits since he is no longer able to read and absorb long articles either in print form or
online. Bruce Friedman, a local medicine blogger, explained Nicolasâ??s situation as his brain
resulting to scanning only short text passages from numerous sources. Results from a recent study
by scholars from the University College London shows that most people who source their reading
material online tend to have more of a skimming technique while reading. The study also goes on
to report that the above individuals cannot read more than two pages without moving to other
sources or sites for more information. Some are even recorded saving long articles and never
referring to them again in the future. A quote from the report indicates that â??It is clear that computer
users today are not reading online in the traditional sense; indeed there are signs that new forms of
â??readingâ? are emerging as users â??power browseâ? horizontally through titles, contents pages, and
abstracts going for quick wins. It almost seems that they go online to avoid reading in the
traditional senseâ?. (Again, you are summarizing Carr without a connection to any other
According to Ally Julseth, the best explanation to why people nowadays had developed the
skimming activity when reading is the fact that people tend to read more today than in the past
when the television was the only entertainment medium of choice. With this new kind of reading,
Ally asserts that our minds get exposed to a new way of thinking, and it is because of this that
people tend to put efficiency before anything else. Wolf, a psychologist at Tufts University,
believes that reading online makes us merely decoders of information and our ability to interpret
text from some of the mental connections we make while engaged in in-depth reading will remain
disengaged. Wolf explains that for us to improve on how our minds translate these symbolic
characters into a language, we can easily understand. In so doing the brain will be able to take
control of some cognitive factors including memory, and the mindâ??s ability to respond to visual
and audio stimuli.
(This paragraph is your first attempt at synthesis. The majority of your paper should be
done in a similar way.)It is accurate technology has its impact on our lives, and the above examples
are some of how advancing technology impacts our reading capabilities differently. There are both
positive and negative effects brought about by the impact of technology advancement with the
positive being the internet being a source of accessing information faster and more efficient than
the traditional library. And, as Ally Julseth suggests, the internet has made it possible for people
to read and write more than people did earlier on. Some of the negative impacts of the internet,
according to Nicolas Carr involve the detachment of people from in-depth reading and resulting
to skimming through which reduces the memory capacity of people. Because of this, there is a
need for the relevant bodies to work on setting up rules on gearing the advancement of technology
in improving the reading and writing culture. Also, people should also work hard to make sure that
the new reading techniques do not deprive them of their traditional reading skills which allowed
for total understanding and interpretation of written text.
Carr, Nicholas. Is Google making us stupid? What the Internet is doing to our brains. Vol. 1.
Thompson, Clive. “Clive Thompson on the new literacy.” Wired magazine 17.9 (2009): 17-09.
The New Literacy
(taken from The Bedford Guide for College Writers)
As the school year begins, be ready to hear pundits fretting once again about how kids
today canâ??t write â?? and technology is to blame. Face book encourages narcissistic blabbering,
video and PowerPoint have replaced carefully crafted essays, and texting has dehydrated
language into â??bleak, balk, sad shorthand: (as University College of London English professor
John Sutherland has moaned). An age of illiteracy is at hand, right?
Andrea Lunsford isnâ??t so sure. Lunsford is a professor of writing and rhetoric at Stanford
University, where she has organized a mammoth project called the Stanford Study of Writing to
scrutinize college studentsâ?? prose. From 2001 to 2006, she collected 14, 672 student writing
samples â?? everything from in-class assignments, formal essays, and journal entries to emails,
blog posts, and chat sessions. Her conclusions are stirring.
â??I think weâ??re in the midst of a literacy revolution the likes of which we havenâ??t seen
since Greek civilization,â? she says. For Lunsford, technology isnâ??t killing our ability to write. Itâ??s
reviving it â?? and pushing our literacy in bold new directions.
The first thing she found is that young people today write far more than any generation
before them. Thatâ??s because so much socializing takes place online, and it almost always
involves text. Of all the writing that the Stanford students did, a stunning 38 percent of it took
place out of the classroom- life writing, as Lunsford calls it. Those Twitter updates and lists of
25 things about yourself add up.
Itâ??s almost hard to remember how big a paradigm shift this is. Before the Internet came
along, most Americans never wrote anything, ever, that wasnâ??t a school assignment. Unless they
got a job that required producing text (like in law, advertising, or media), theyâ??d leave school and
virtually never construct a paragraph again.
But is this explosion of prose good, on a technical level? Yes. Lunsfordâ??s team found that
the students were remarkably adept at what rhetoricians call kairos â?? assessing their audience
and adapting their tone and technique to best get their point across. The modern world of online
writing, particularly in chat and on discussion threads, is conversational and public, which makes
it closer to the Greek tradition of argument than the asynchronous letter and essay writing of 50
The fact that students today almost always write for an audience (something virtually no
one in my generation did) gives them a different sense of what constitutes good writing. In
interviews, they defined good prose as something that had an effect on the world. For them,
writing is about persuading and organizing and debating, even if itâ??s over something as quotidian
as what movie to go see. The Stanford students were almost always less enthusiastic about their
in-class writing because it had no audience but the professor: It didnâ??t serve any purpose other
than to get them a grade. As for those texting short-forms and smileys defiling serious academic
writing? Another myth. When Lunsford examined the work of first-year students, she didnâ??t find
a single example of texting speak in an academic paper.
Of course, good teaching is always going to be crucial, as is the mastering of formal
academic prose. But itâ??s also becoming clear that online media are pushing literacy into cool
directions. The brevity of texting and status updating teaches young people to deploy haiku-like
concision. At the same time the proliferation of new forms of online pop-cultural exegesis â?? from
sprawling TV-show recaps to 15, 000-word videogame walkthroughs â?? has given them a chance
to write enormously long and complex pieces of prose, often while working collaboratively with
We think of writing as either good or bad. What todayâ??s young people know is that
knowing who youâ??re writing for and why youâ??re writing might be the most crucial factor of all.
Questions to Consider
1. Consider the Meaning: According to the author, what is the effect of the Internet on
2. Identify Writing Strategies: Where does Thompson use comparison and contrast?
How does it support his argument?
3. Reading Critically: Who seems to be the intended audience for this essay? What is the
writerâ??s purpose? How well do you think he achieves it?
4. Expanding Vocabulary: In paragraph 5, Thompson writes, â??Itâ??s almost hard to
remember how big a paradigm shift this is.â? What is a paradigm shift? Why is this
concept important to Thompsonâ??s larger purpose?
5. Making Connections: According to Thompson, The Internet and other new forms of
media are stimulating literacy. How might Carr respond to Thompsonâ??s article? What
would he make of this â??paradigm shiftâ??
Analyzing â??The New Literacyâ?
Ally Julseth —Student Critical Reading Response
(taken from The Bedford Guide for College Writers)
Being part of a generation that spends an immense amount of time online, I find it rather
annoying to hear that youth today are slowly diminishing the art of writing. Because Facebook
and Twitter have limited character space, I do use abbreviations such as s.m.h. (shaking my
head), â??abtâ? (about), and â??uâ? (you). However, my simplistic way of writing informally for online
media has no correlation with my formal writing. In â??The New Literacyâ? essay, Clive Thompson
indicates that this lack of correlation seems to be the case with many more students.
Thompson explores the idea that the advancing media is changing the way students write.
After citing Professor Sutherland blaming technology for â??bleak, balk, sad shorthandâ? (qtd. In
Thompson), he goes on to describe the Stanford Study of Writing, conducted by writing
professor Andrea Lunsford. She studied over 14, 000 examples of student writing from academic
essays to e-mails and chats. From these samples, she learned that â??young people today write fare
more than any generation before themâ? (547). I completely agree with this point based on the
large volume I write socializing on the Internet. I believe that eh time I spend online writing onedimensional phrases does not weaken my formal writing as a student.
Thompson goes on to explain that the new way of writing on the Internet is actually more
similar to the Greek tradition of argument than to the essay and letter-writing tradition of the last
half century. Lunsford concluded that â??the students were remarkably adept at what rhetoricians
call Kairos â??assessing their audience and adapting their tone and technique to get their point
acrossâ? (547). Their Internet writing is like a conversation with another person.
I find this conclusion interesting. As I advance in my writing as a student, I remember
being taught as a child that there is a distinct line between writing an essay that is due to a
teacher and writing a letter to a friend. Although the two are different, there are similarities as
well. The nice thing about writing on the Internet is that I can choose what I write about and how
I say it. When Iâ??m writing to a friend, sticking to the point isnâ??t exactly the goal, but I do get my
main point across. However, I never write a formal essay unless it is assigned. Like the Stanford
students, I do not look forward to writing an essay simply for the grade. Writing for a prompt I
did not choose does not allow me to put my full-hearted passion into the essay. When I was
younger, I wrote essays that were bland and straight to the point. As I write now, I try to think as
though I am reading to a room full of people, keeping my essay as interesting as I can.
Thompson ends his piece on the importance of good teaching. This importance is true;
teaching is the way students learn how to draw that line between formal and informal writing and
how to write depending on audience. I appreciate and completely agree with Thompsonâ??s essay.
I feel that he describes the younger generation very well. He is pushing away what high-brow
critics say, and he is saying we are almost inventing a new way of writing.
Thompson, Clive. â??The New Literacy.â? The Bedford Guide for College Writers with Reader,
Research Manual, and Handbook, edited by X.J. Kennedy, Dorothy M. Kennedy, and
Marcia F. Muth, 11th ed., Bedford/St. Martinâ??s 2017, pp. 547-48.
——————————————————————————————————————–Questions to Consider
1. According to Julseth, what is the issue the Thompson raises, and what is his position on
this topic? Where does Julseth present this information?
2. What are Julsethâ??s main points in her analysis?
3. How does Julseth apply this reading to her own life?
4. How has Julseth demonstrated both literal and critical reading responses?
5. How does Julseth develop her analysis? What kinds of material does she draw from the
Is Google Making Us Stupid?
What the internet is doing in our brains
“Dave, stop. Stop, will you? Stop, Dave. Will you stop, Dave?â? So the supercomputer
HAL pleads with the implacable astronaut Dave Bowman in a famous and weirdly
poignant scene toward the end of Stanley Kubrickâ??s 2001: A Space Odyssey. Bowman,
having nearly been sent to a deep-space death by the malfunctioning machine, is calmly,
coldly disconnecting the memory circuits that control its artificial â?? brain. â??Dave, my
mind is going,â? HAL says, forlornly. â??I can feel it. I can feel it.â?
I can feel it, too. Over the past few years Iâ??ve had an uncomfortable sense that someone,
or something, has been tinkering with my brain, remapping the neural circuitry,
reprogramming the memory. My mind isnâ??t goingâ??so far as I can tellâ??but itâ??s changing.
Iâ??m not thinking the way I used to think. I can feel it most strongly when Iâ??m reading.
Immersing myself in a book or a lengthy article used to be easy. My mind would get
caught up in the narrative or the turns of the argument, and Iâ??d spend hours strolling
through long stretches of prose. Thatâ??s rarely the case anymore. Now my concentration
often starts to drift after two or three pages. I get fidgety, lose the thread, begin looking
for something else to do. I feel as if Iâ??m always dragging my wayward brain back to the
text. The deep reading that used to come naturally h …
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