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Chapter Two: Literature review(part one)
This chapter focus on the most important and effective strategy of using green
building in Middle East and other countries.
2.1 Climate in Australia
Australia is the one of the country which are used green building design. Australia has
several different climate zones. So, the northern section of Australia has a more
tropical influenced climate, hot and humid in the summer, and quite warm and dry in
the winter, whereas the southern parts are cooler with mild summers and cool,
sometimes rainy winters. The seasons are the reverse of those in the Northern
Hemisphere-when it’s summer in the north, its winter south of the equator. December
and January are the hottest months in Australia, July and August the coldest .But the
southern areas of the Australian Continent are generally more temperate to warm,
with summer daytime temperatures usually between 25 and 30Â°C and winter
Temperatures between 5 and 10Â°C. In addition , the areas in central Australia the
temperature reaches sometimes 50Â°C and more, and rain may not fall for
While Randall Mcmullan, (1997) supposed the climate for a building is the set of
environmental conditions which encircle a building and relation to the inside of a
building by way of heat transfer. Also, the Climate has significant effects on the
energy performance of building, in both winter and summer. Although in general
features of the climate are further than our control, the design of a building can have
a large influence on the climate behavior of the building. The following procedures
can be used to enhance the contact between buildings and climate.
1. First of all , Selection of site to avoid heights and hollows.
2. Second one , Orientation of buildings to maximize or minimize solar gains.
3. Then , Spacing of buildings to avoid wind which cannot needed and shade
4. Subsequently, Design of windows to allow maximum daylight in buildings.
5. Also, Design of shade and windows to prevent solar overheating.
6. Next , Selection of trees and wall surfaces to protection buildings from driving
rain and snow.
7. Finally , Selection of ground surfaces for dryness.
2.2 The impacts of green building design to built environment
Green buildings design are designed to reduce the general impact of the built environment on
human health and the natural environment and this design have direct and indirect impacts on
the environment . Through using water, energy and other resources . Moreover , Protecting
human health and improving or develop employee productivity. Furthermore, Reducing waste,
pollution that to make environmental healthy.Dr. James A. Tshudy (1995). Is explain for A
green building design must have clear and measurable benefits. Protecting the environment is
surely one of the primary benefits. These benefits like reduced life-cycle costs, which includes;
First costs, operating costs such as (energy, maintenance and repair), renovation, demolition,
disposal costs, less of risk and liability . Also, a better building offering, including: Energy
efficiency; improved lighting; improved comfort; and Healthier indoor environment, Improved
occupant productivity, and awareness of environmental issues and considerations as a result of
On the other hand , (Spiegel , Meadows. 1999). Are confident that “Green building practices
aim to reduce the environmental impact of buildings. Buildings account for a great amount of
land use, energy and water use, and air and atmosphere alteration. In view of the statistics,
reducing the amount of natural resources buildings consume and the amount of pollution given
off is seen as crucial for future sustainability, according to EPA.The environmental impact of
buildings is often underestimated, as the perceived costs of green buildings are overestimated.
A recent survey by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development finds that green
costs are overestimated by 300 percent, as key players in real estate and construction estimate
the additional cost at 17 percent above conventional construction, more than triple the true
average cost difference of about 5 percent.Green building materials are composed of renewable,
rather than nonrenewable resources. Green materials are environmentally responsible because
impacts are considered over the life of the product.
In addition ,the construction, maintenance and demolition of buildings use a great amount of
energy and resources. In the United States, buildings account for:
65% of electricity consumption.
30% of raw materials use.
30% of greenhouse gas emissions.
Building green is important to the protection of ecosystems, to maintain safe air and water
quality, and to conserve renewable and nonrenewable natural resources. furthermore for these
Table 1: Impacts of the built environment
Aspects of Built
Harm to human health
Storm water runoff
Loss of resources
2.3 The benefit cost and Economic of Green Buildings.
(Gregory H. Kats .2003). stated that the Green buildings design are usually perceived to be
more expensive than normal buildings and often not worth the extra cost. In 2003 article in the
New York Times was entitled Not Building Green Is Called a Matter of Economics. Also, in
order to resolve the cost of building green compared to normal design, a number of dozen
building representatives and architects were contacted to secure the cost of 33 green buildings
from across the United States compared to normal designs for those same buildings. In addition
, The average premium for these green buildings is slightly fewer than 2%, or $3-5/ft2,
substantially lower than is commonly perceived. On the other hand, the majority of this cost is
due to the improved architectural and engineering (A&E) design time, modeling costs and time
required to full sustainable building practices into projects. In general, the earlier green building
features are together into the design process, the lower the cost.
On the other hand , (Geof Syphers .2003 ) confirmed thatgreen buildings design can incur
higher costs because of additional design analysis, computer
modeling, commissioning, produce research, and lifecycle cost analysis for other materials .So
, these higher costs can be recovered by:
Reduced maintenance and renovation costs.
Reduced utilities (electricity, gas, water).
Improved health and productivity of employee.
Less of liability.
Longer life of building materials.
Furthermore, The most criticized problem about constructing environmentally friendly
buildings is the cost. The green building designs havenew appliances, and modern technologies
tend to cost more money. Also, most green buildings cost a premium of <2%, but yield 10 times as much over the entire life of the building.As well the savings in money come from more competent use of utilities which result in decreased energy bills. Besides, higher worker productivity can be factored into savings and cost deductions. During the Studies have shown over a 20 year life period, some green buildings have yielded $53 to $71 per square foot back on investment. And It is projected that different sectors could save $130 Billion on energy bills.(en.wilipedia.org/wiki/file:passivhaussectionen) . Also, Rockingham (2007) provide that the building costs include the cost of design, materials, construction, and permitting . Moreover, the cost of green building design are more complex than simply measuring the costs of materials and construction for a green building opposed to the costs of materials for a conventionally built building. However , The costs and benefits of green building not only impact of the builderâ??s bottom line, but also impact for the workers, tenants as well as society as a whole. Moreover ,Environmental Building News (1999)stated that the costing of A green building design is more but saves through lower operating costs over the life of the building. Also, these and other cost savings can only be fully realized when they are incorporated at the projectâ??s conceptual design phase with the assistance of an integrated team of professionals. In addition , The integrated systems approach ensures that the building is designed as one system rather than a collection of stand-alone systems. The benefits of using green building designare improving occupant health, comfort, productivity, reducing pollution and landfill waste are not easily quantified. As a result, they are not adequately considered in cost analysis. For this reason, consider setting aside a small portion of the building budget to cover differential costs associated with less tangible green building benefits or to cover the cost of researching and analyzing green building options. Many green building measures can be incorporated with minimal or zero increased up-front costs and they can yield enormous savings. Table2: Design Cost Factors (Architects, Engineers, Users ): Cost Factors Mitigation Strategies Design load Work with the design team to create a realistic maximum anticipated load to avoid over sizingpower, ventilation, and cooling systems. Degree of standardization Consider standardizing equipment locations and types to save on construction costs by keeping the design simple to build. Flexibility of building users Determine early on if the users support potential innovative changes that may affect the way they use the building. Plan for growth Carefully consider the costs and benefits of planning for expansion capability. Expansion can be a very useful and environmentally sound way to meet future needs without having to construct an entire new building; but it also can mean building expensive features now that may never be used. Materials and systems Consider opportunities to transfer funds from operation and maintenance budgets into capital construction funds to help pay for more durable and efficient products, which often incur additional upfront costs. Source : Managing the cost of Green Building , Geof Syphers(2003 ) 2.4 The operation of green building design The main objectives of sustainable design are to avoid resource reduction of energy, water, and raw materials to prevent environmental degradation caused by facilities and infrastructure throughout their life cycle. In addition, make built environments that are habitable, comfortable, safe, and productive. Whilst the meaning of sustainable building design is constantly changing. There are six elements principles persist: 1. First one is Optimize Site/Existing Structure Potential: Creating sustainable buildings design starts with suitable site selection, containing consideration of the reuse. Also, the location, orientation, and landscaping of a building impact of the local ecosystems, transportation methods, and energy use. Moreover, Sitting for physical security is a dangerous issue in optimizing locate design, including locations of access roads, parking, vehicle barriers, and perimeter lighting. As like designing a new building or retrofitting an existing building, site design must integrate with sustainable design to reach a successful project. 2. The Second one ,Optimize Energy Use:With America's supply of fossil fuel dwindling, concerns for energy independence and security increasing. Moreover , the impacts of global climate change arising. And it is necessary to find ways to decrease load, increase efficiency, and use renewable energy resources in federal facilities. 3. The third one , Protect and Conserve Water: In many parts of the country, fresh water is an gradually more scarce resource.In addition A sustainable building should reduce, manage, and treat site runoff, utilize water efficiently, and reuse or recycle water for on-site use. 4. The fourth one Use Environmentally Preferable Products :A sustainable building is constructed of materials that minimize life-cycle environmental impacts . For example, global warming, resource depletion, and human toxicity. furthermore, Environmentally preferable materials have a reduced impact on human health and the environment and give to improved worker safety and health, reduced liabilities, reduced disposal costs, and success of environmental goals. 5. The fifth Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) :The indoor environmental quality (IEQ) of a building has a significant impact on human health, comfort, and productivity. Also, a sustainable building maximizes day lighting has appropriate ventilation and moisture control and avoids the use of materials with high-VOC emissions. As well, consider ventilation and filtration to mitigate chemical, biological, and radiological attack. 6. The sixth Optimize Operational and Maintenance:PracticesConsidering a building's operating and maintenance issues during the preliminary design phase of a facility will give to improved working environments, higher productivity, decrease energy and resource costs, and prevented system failures. Additionally, encourage building operators and maintenance personnel to participate in the design and development phases to ensure optimal operations and maintenance of the building. Moreover, designers can specify materials and systems that simplify and reduce maintenance requirements; require less water, energy, and toxic chemicals and cleaners to maintain and are cost-effective and reduce life-cycle costs. also, design facilities to contain meters in order to track the progress of sustainability initiatives, including reductions in energy and water use and waste generation, in the facility and on site ( need.or/needpdf/Intermediate , 2010 ) 2.4.1Materials efficiency Dr Carol Boyle (2004) provide that particularly significant to the construction industry which is a major consumer of resources. US EPA (2003) is guess of use resource that a standard woodframe house uses one acre of forest and produces 3-7 tons of waste during construction. Moreover, the buildings consume 40% of the gravel, stone and sand, 25%of the timber, 40% of the energy and 16% of the water used globally per year. Reverse in the UK alone, it was estimated that about 6 tons of building materials is used annually for every member of the population. On the other hand, Mark D. Wilhelm (2005) provide that U.S. use the green building design because the buildings have a significant negative impact on the environment. The U.S has over 76 million residential and 5 million commercial buildings. Moreover, these buildings consume 65% of electricity, 37% of primary energy 25% of all water supplies and 30% of all wood & materials. But the generate of these buildings are 35% of solid waste , 36% of CO2 and 46% of SO2 emissions , 19% of NOx and 10% of fine particulate emissions . In addition, Sustainable buildings consume less resources, generate less waste, cost less to operate, and provide healthier living and working environments than traditional buildings. Green building materials typically containquickly renewable plant materials like bamboo for the reason that bamboo grows quickly and straw, lumber from forests certified to be sustainable managed, ecology blocks, dimension stone, recycled stone, recycled metal, and other products that are non-toxic, reusable, renewable, and recyclable. For example, Trass , Linoleum, sheep wool, panels made from paper flakes, compressed earth block, adobe, baked earth, rammed earth, clay, vermiculite, flax linen, sisal, sea grass, cork, expanded clay grains, coconut, wood fiber plates, calcium sand stone, concrete. Also, the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) is suggests using recycled industrial goods, such as coal combustion products, foundry sand, and demolition debris in construction projects .Moreover, Polyurethane heavily reduces carbon emissions. As well Polyurethane blocks are being used instead of CMTs by companies like American Insilco and it provide more speed, less cost, and they are environmentally friendly. Furthermore, Building materials should be extracted and manufactured locally to the building site to minimize the energy embedded in their transportation. (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green building, 2010). On the other hand , Building structure and operation have extensive direct and indirect impacts on the environment. Also, green buildings use resources such as energy, water and raw materials, generate waste (occupant, construction and demolition) and emit potentially hazardous atmospheric emissions. Moreover, building owners, designers and builders face a unique challenge to meet demands for new and renovated facilities that are accessible, secure, healthy, and productive while minimizing their impact on the environment. In addition considering the current economic challenges, retrofitting an existing building can be more cost effective than building a new facility. And designing major renovations and retrofits for existing buildings to contain sustainability initiatives reduces operation costs and environmental impacts, and can increase building resiliency.( design/sustainable,2010). Fig1 : Building account Source: EPA, 2004 (www.wbdg.org/design/sustainable) 2.4.2.Heating, Ventilation and Cooling System Efficiency Warren L., Peter A,(2007) stated that the green buildings have a better indoor environmental quality like comfort perceptions of occupants than normal buildings. Moreover, doing test for measured the comfort and satisfaction perceptions of the occupants of a green university building and two conventional university buildings with a questionnaire that asked occupants to rate their workplace environment in terms of aesthetics, serenity, lighting, acoustics, ventilation, temperature, humidity, and overall satisfaction. In addition the university buildings at the centre of the study are located in Albury-Wodonga, in inland southeast Australia. And the green building, which is naturally ventilated, is constructed from rammed earth and recycled materials. On the other hand , The conventional buildings have heating, ventilating, and airconditioning (HVAC) systems and are of brick veneer construction. As result ,we found no evidence to believe that green buildings are more comfortable. Actually , the only difference between the buildings was that occupants of the green building were more likely to perceive their work environment as warm, and occupants who felt warm were more likely to describe their work environment as poor. Though, the hydronic cooling system of this building was malfunctioning at the time of the study and hence this result cannot be generalized as a difference between green buildings and conventional HVAC buildings. And all other aspects of comfort, counting aesthetics, serenity, lighting, ventilation, acoustics, and humidity, were not perceived differently by the occupants of the two types of building. Likewise ,the most important and cost effective element of an efficient heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is a well insulated building. Moreover, increase efficient building requires less heat generating but may require more ventilation capacity to expel polluted indoor air. In addition the important amounts of energy are flushed out of buildings in the water, air and compost streams.Beside on-site energy recycling technologies can effectively recapture energy from waste hot water and stale air and transfer that energy into incoming fresh cold wate ... Purchase answer to see full attachment
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