The Two Primary Types of Mixed Methods Designs

In Chapter 10 of the text, the author discusses the two primary types of mixed methods designs (pp. 219- 223). After reading the text, paying particular attention to Figure 10.1 on page 220 and Figure 10.2 on page 221, examine this methodology as it pertains to research in criminal justice. Consider the key components, as well as major strengths and weaknesses, of the two primary types of mixed methods design. In your paperIdentify the major components of mixed methods research design.Analyze the major strengths and weaknesses of mixed methods research design.Examine the use of such data by criminal justice agencies.The paperMust be three to five double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..Must include a separate title page with the following:Title of paperStudentâ??s nameCourse name and numberInstructorâ??s nameDate submittedMust use at least three peer-reviewed sources in addition to the course text.The Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment.Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.
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Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources
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Ashford University Library, June 2015, CR 0130415
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CRJ520.W5A1.10.2015
Description:
Total Possible Score: 9.00
Identifies and Describes the Major Components of Mixed Methods Research
Design
Total: 3.00
Distinguished – Comprehensively and accurately identifies and describes the major components of mixed methods research
design.
Proficient – Identifies and describes the major components of mixed methods research design. The identification and
description are slightly inaccurate or underdeveloped.
Basic – Minimally identifies and describes the major components of mixed methods research design. The identification and
description are inaccurate and/or underdeveloped.
Below Expectations – Attempts to identify and describe the major components of mixed methods research design; however,
the identification and description are significantly inaccurate and underdeveloped.
Non Performance – The identification and description of the major components of mixed methods research design is either
nonexistent or lacks the components described in the assignment instructions.
Analyzes the Major Strengths and Weaknesses of Mixed Method Research
Design
Total: 3.00
Distinguished – Comprehensively analyzes the major strengths and weaknesses of mixed methods research design.
Proficient – Analyzes the major strengths and weaknesses of mixed methods research design. The analysis is slightly
underdeveloped.
Basic – Minimally analyzes the major strengths and weaknesses of mixed methods research design. The analysis is
underdeveloped.
Below Expectations – Attempts to analyze the major strengths and weaknesses of mixed methods research design;
however, the analysis is significantly underdeveloped.
Non Performance -The analysis of the major strengths and weaknesses of mixed method research design is either
nonexistent or lacks the components described in the assignment instructions.
Examines the Use of Such Data By Criminal Justice Agencies
Total: 2.00
Distinguished – Comprehensively examines the use of such data by criminal justice agencies.
Proficient – Examines the use of such data by criminal justice agencies. The examination is slightly underdeveloped.
Basic – Minimally examines the use of such data by criminal justice agencies. The examination is underdeveloped.
Below Expectations – Attempts to examine the use of such data by criminal justice agencies; however, the examination is
significantly underdeveloped.
Non Performance – The examination of the use of such data by criminal justice agencies. is either nonexistent or lacks the
components described in the assignment instructions.
Written Communication: Control of Syntax and Mechanics
Total: 0.25
Distinguished – Displays meticulous comprehension and organization of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling and
grammar. Written work contains no errors and is very easy to understand.
Proficient – Displays comprehension and organization of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling and grammar. Written
work contains only a few minor errors and is mostly easy to understand.
Basic – Displays basic comprehension of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling and grammar. Written work contains a few
errors which may slightly distract the reader.
Below Expectations – Fails to display basic comprehension of syntax or mechanics, such as spelling and grammar. Written
work contains major errors which distract the reader.
Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.
Written Communication: APA Formatting
Total: 0.25
Distinguished – Accurately uses APA formatting consistently throughout the paper, title page, and reference page.
Proficient – Exhibits APA formatting throughout the paper. However, layout contains a few minor errors.
Basic – Exhibits limited knowledge of APA formatting throughout the paper. However, layout does not meet all APA
requirements.
Below Expectations – Fails to exhibit basic knowledge of APA formatting. There are frequent errors, making the layout
difficult to distinguish as APA.
Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.
Written Communication: Page Requirement
Total: 0.25
Distinguished – The length of the paper is equivalent to the required number of correctly formatted pages.
Proficient – The length of the paper is nearly equivalent to the required number of correctly formatted pages.
Basic – The length of the paper is equivalent to at least three quarters of the required number of correctly formatted pages.
Below Expectations – The length of the paper is equivalent to at least one half of the required number of correctly formatted
pages.
Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.
Written Communication: Resource Requirement
Total: 0.25
Distinguished – Uses more than the required number of scholarly sources, providing compelling evidence to support ideas.
All sources on the reference page are used and cited correctly within the body of the assignment.
Proficient – Uses the required number of scholarly sources to support ideas. All sources on the reference page are used and
cited correctly within the body of the assignment.
Basic – Uses less than the required number of sources to support ideas. Some sources may not be scholarly. Most sources
on the reference page are used within the body of the assignment. Citations may not be formatted correctly.
Below Expectations – Uses an inadequate number of sources that provide little or no support for ideas. Sources used may
not be scholarly. Most sources on the reference page are not used within the body of the assignment. Citations are not
formatted correctly.
Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.
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Mixed methods research has evolved into a set of procedures that proposal developers can use in planning a mixed
methods study. In 2003, the Handbook of Mixed Methods in the Social and Behavior Sciences (Tashakkori & Teddlie,
2003) was published (and later added to in a second edition, see Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2010), providing a
comprehensive overview of this approach. Now several journals emphasize mixed methods research, such as the
Journal of Mixed Methods Research, Quality and Quantity, Field Methods, and the International Journal of Multiple
Research Approaches while numerous others actively encourage this form of inquiry (e.g., International Journal of
Social Research Methodology, Qualitative Health Research, Annals of Family Medicine). Numerous published
research studies have incorporated mixed methods research in the social and human sciences in diverse fields such
as occupational therapy (Lysack & Krefting, 1994), interpersonal communication (Boneva, Kraut, & Frohlich, 2001),
AIDS prevention (Janz et al., 1996), dementia caregiving (Weitzman & Levkoff, 2000), occupational health (Ames,
Duke, Moore, & Cunradi, 2009), mental health (Rogers, Day Randall, & Bentall, 2003), and in middle school science
(Houtz, 1995). New books arrive each year solely devoted to mixed methods research (Bryman, 2006; Creswell &
Plano Clark, 2011; Greene, 2007; Morse & Niehaus, 2009; Plano Clark & Creswell, 2008; Tashakkori & Teddlie,
1998, 2010; Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2009).
Describe Mixed Methods Research
Because mixed methods research is relatively new in the social and human sciences as a distinct research approach,
it is useful to convey a basic definition and description of the approach in a method section of a proposal. This might
include the following:
â?¢ Begin by defining mixed methods. Recall the definition provided in Chapter 1. Elements in this definition can now be
enumerated so that a reader has a complete set of core characteristics that describe mixed methods (see a more
expanded view of defining mixed methods research in Johnson, Onwuegbuzie, & Turner, 2007):
It involves the collection of both qualitative (open-ended) and quantitative (closed-ended) data in response to
research questions or hypotheses.
It includes the analysis of both forms of data.
The procedures for both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis need to be conducted rigorously
(e.g., adequate sampling, sources of information, data analysis steps).
The two forms of data are integrated in the design analysis through merging the data, connecting the data, or
embedding the data.
These procedures are incorporated into a distinct mixed methods design that also includes the timing of the data
collection (concurrent or sequential) as well as the emphasis (equal or unequal) for each database.
These procedures can also be informed by a philosophical worldview or a theory (see Chapter 3).
â?¢ Discuss that many different terms are used for this approach, such as integrating, synthesis, quantitative and
qualitative methods, multimethod, and mixed methodology but that recent writings tend to use the term mixed
methods (Bryman, 2006; Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2010).
â?¢ Educate the reader about the background of mixed methods by reviewing briefly this history of this approach to
research. It can be seen as a new methodology originating around the late 1980s and early 1990s based on work
from individuals in diverse fields such as evaluation, education, management, sociology, and health sciences. It has
gone through several periods of development including the formative stage, the philosophical debates, the procedural
developments, and more recently reflective positions (noting controversies and debates) and expansion into different
disciplines and into many countries throughout the world. Several texts outline these developmental phases (e.g.,
Creswell & Plano Clark, 2011; Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2009). This section could also include a brief discussion about
the importance or rise of mixed methods today through such indicators of federal funding initiatives, through
dissertations, and through the discipline-specific discussions about mixed methods found in journals across the social
and health sciences (see Creswell, 2010, 2011).
â?¢ Follow this section with statements about the value and rationale for the choice of mixed methods as an approach
for the dissertation or thesis project. At a general level, mixed methods is chosen because of its strength of drawing
on both qualitative and quantitative research and minimizing the limitations of both approaches. At a practical level,
mixed methods provides a sophisticated, complex approach to research that appeals to those on the forefront of new
research procedures. It also can be an ideal approach if the researcher has access to both quantitative and
qualitative data. At a procedural level, it is a useful strategy to have a more complete understanding of research
problems/questions, such as the following:
Comparing different perspectives drawn from quantitative and qualitative data
Explaining quantitative results with a qualitative follow-up data collection and analysis
Developing better measurement instruments by first collecting and analyzing qualitative data and then administrating
the instruments to a sample
Understanding experimental results by incorporating the perspectives of individuals
Developing a more complete understanding of changes needed for a marginalized group through the combination of
qualitative and quantitative data
Having a better understanding the need for and impact of an intervention program through collecting both
quantitative and qualitative data over time
â?¢ Indicate the type of mixed methods design that will be used in the study and the rationale for choosing it. A detailed
discussion of the primary strategies available will be discussed shortly. Include a figure or diagram of these
procedures.
â?¢ Note the challenges this form of research poses for the inquirer. These include the need for extensive data
collection, the time-intensive nature of analyzing both qualitative and quantitative data, and the requirement for the
researcher to be familiar with both quantitative and qualitative forms of research. The complexity of the design also
calls for clear, visual models to understand the details and the flow of research activities in this design.
10.2 TYPES OF MIXED METHODS DESIGNS
There have been several typologies for classifying and identifying types of mixed methods strategies that proposal
developers might use in their proposed mixed methods study. Creswell and Plano Clark (2011) identified several
classification systems drawn from the fields of evaluation, nursing, public health, education policy and research, and
social and behavioral research. In these classifications, authors used diverse terms for their types of designs, and a
substantial amount of overlap of types existed in the typologies. For purposes of this discussion, I will identify and
discuss the three basic mixed methods designs (as shown in Figures 10.1 and 10.2) and then briefly mention more
advanced strategies that incorporate these three basic forms. Each approach will be discussed in terms of a
description of the design, the forms of data collection and data analysis, interpretation, and validity challenges.
Convergent Parallel Mixed Methods Design
Description of the design. The convergent mixed methods approach is probably the most familiar of the basic and
advanced mixed methods strategies. Researchers new to mixed methods typically first think of this approach
because they feel that mixed methods only consists of combining the quantitative and qualitative data. In this
approach, a researcher collects both quantitative and qualitative data, analyzes them separately, and then compares
the results to see if the findings confirm or disconfirm each other (see Figure 10.1). The key assumption of this
approach is that both qualitative and quantitative data provide different types of informationâ??often detailed views of
participants qualitatively and scores on instruments quantitativelyâ??and together they yield results that should be the
same. It builds off the historic concept of the multimethod, multitrait idea from Campbell and Fiske (1959), who felt
that a psychological trait could best be understood by gathering different forms of data. Although the Campbell and
Fiske conceptualization included only quantitative data, the mixed methods researchers extended the idea to include
the collection of both quantitative and qualitative data.
Data collection. The qualitative data can assume any of the forms discussed in Chapter 8, such as interviews,
observations, documents, and records. The qualitative data can be instrument data, observational checklists, or
numeric records, such as census data, as discussed in Chapter 7. The key idea with this design is to collect both
forms of data using the same or parallel variables, constructs, or concepts. In other words, if the concept of selfesteem is being measured quantitatively, the same concept is asked during the qualitative data collection process,
such as in an open-ended interview. Another data collection issue is the sample size for both the qualitative and
quantitative data collection process. Unquestionably, the data for the qualitative data collection will be smaller than
that for the quantitative data collection. This is because the intent of data collection for qualitative data is to locate and
obtain information from a small sample but to gather extensive information from this sample; whereas, in quantitative
research, a large N is needed in order to conduct meaningful statistical tests. How is this inequality resolved in a
convergent mixed methods design? Sometimes mixed methods researches will collect information from the same
number of individuals on both the qualitative and quantitative database. This means that the qualitative sample will be
increased, and it will limit the amount of data collected from any one individual. Another approach would be to weight
the qualitative cases so that they equal the N in the quantitative database. One other approach taken by some mixed
methods researchers is not to consider the unequal sample sizes a problem. They would argue that the intent of
qualitative and quantitative research differ (one to gain an in-depth perspective and the other, to generalize to a
population) and that each …
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