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Effect of Cigarette Taxation on Smoking Consumption Among Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia 1
Effect of Cigarette Taxation on Smoking Consumption Among
Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.
Khalid Ahmed Alharthi â?? M011400070
Ali Saeed Alqahtani â?? M011400095
Hassan Salim Alasiri â?? M0114000677
Introduction
With more than 4000 chemicals and toxins in cigarettes, smoking constitute a health hazard around
the globe.(1) While smoking in public places has been prohibited in Saudi Arabia since 2004, the
kingdom ranked fourth in tobacco import worldwide.(2) The economic loss caused by tobacco
over the last 10 years in the kingdom was estimated at 20.5 billion US dollars.(3) In the WHO
report on the global Tobacco Epidemic, the prevalence of tobacco use among adults in the general
population of Saudi Arabia was 22%, as estimated in a study conducted in 2006.(4) The number
has increased to 27.9% in the 2012 BREATH study.(5) Furthermore, alarming smoking rates have
been reported among high school students,(6) college students,(7) and medical students.(8,9)
Surprisingly, 24.8% of male medical students were current smokers,(9) despite their good
knowledge on the hazards of tobacco consumption. In other studies conducted on adults attending
primary health care, prevalence of current smokers varied from 25% in 1996(10) to 34% in
2001.(11) Studies on school children and university students revealed that risk factors for smoking
were found to be mainly smoking friends and parents.(7,12,13) Whether cigarette taxes effectively
achieve state governmentsâ?? goal of reducing cigarette consumption is a key question that needs to
be answered to better determine the direction of future policies. Indeed, if the consumption of
cigarettes is fairly inelastic, then it cannot be argued that taxation directly reduces consumption.
On the other hand, it would imply that cigarette taxation is a good way of raising revenue which
can then be used in more effective means of reducing cigarette consumption while deterring
potential future smokers from starting to smoke. Conversely, if excise taxes on cigarettes do
improve smokersâ?? behavior, then more taxation should take place.
Statement of problem:
smoking is a dangerous habit that can perpetuate throughout a personâ??s lifetime and cause serious
negative health effects. Therefore, intervention strategies such as taxes increase
decreasing smoking consumption and decrease the incidence for health problems.
2
are helpful in
Purpose of the study:
The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of cigarette taxation on the smoking habit among Eastern
Province of Saudi Arabia.
Significance of the Study:
The study finding will show us the benefit of taxation related to smoking consumption. furthermore
helping the government to know that taxation is a good and effective way in decreasing the
numbers of smokers which will contribute to the population and environment.
Research question: is there a relationship between taxes and
smoking consumption ?
Literature review:
Cigarettes and tobacco products are the biggest preventable cause of disease and premature death
in the World and are thus the largest solvable public health problem (World Health Organization).
Questioned in the past, the negative consequences of tobacco consumption are now undeniable.
According to the most recent studies, chronic consumption of 10 cigarettes per day doubles the
risk of having a heart attack and this risk triples when consuming 20 cigarettes per day.(14,15,16)
Because of its contribution to a large number of diseases and premature deaths, cigarette
consumption is a major focus of the field of Health Economics. Many fiscal policies have been
devised to reach the governmentsâ?? objectives of public health. These policies rely on a large
number of econometric analyses that estimate the determinants of demand for cigarettes. The
literature on cigarette consumption is broad, and because of the numerous works published, the
factors determining the demand for tobacco products and, more precisely, for cigarettes, are wellknown. Most economists focus on two distinct outcomes of changes in prices (and thus taxes) on
cigarette consumption. As the price of cigarettes increases, smokers can either stop smoking and
join the group of non-smokers, or decrease their consumption.
3
Methodology
Research design:
A cross-sectional research methodology
Sample:
For this study, a convenience sample of Saudis who lives in Eastern province, the desirable sample size
is estimated to be 200 participants.
Instrument:
The study instrument is a survey that include two forms of questions: yes/no and multiple-choice
questions. consist of three sections:
1- Demographic and socioeconomic factors
2-Smoking history;
3-Changes in smoking behaviors:
Data Collection:
Data will be collected from participants through structure self-administrated survey
Data analysis plan:
The data will be analysis by computer using statistical package for the social science version 20.
Limitations:
Any problem that we will face in the study.
4
References
1. Geneva, Switzerland. WHO; 2011. WHO Report on the global tobacco epidemic 2011: Warning about the
dangers of tobacco.
2. Al Moamary MS. Tobacco consummation: Is it still a dilemma? Ann Thorac Med. 2010;5:193â??4.
3. AlBedah AM, Khalil MK. The economic costs of tobacco consumption in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Tob Control. 2013 [Epub ahead of print]
4. Geneva: WHO; 2013. WHO Report on the global tobacco epidemic: Saudi Arabia Profile.
5. Khattab A, Javaid A, Iraqi G, Alzaabi A, Ben Kheder A, Koniski ML, et al. Smoking habits in the Middle
East and North Africa: Results of the BREATHE study. Respir Med. 2012;106:S16â??24.
6. Al Moamary MS, Al Ghobain MO, Al Shehri SN, Gasmelseed AY, Al-Hajjaj MS. Predicting tobacco use
among high school students by using the global youth tobacco survey in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Ann Thorac
Med. 2012;7:122â??9.
7. Mandil A, BinSaeed A, Dabbagh R, Shaikh S, AlSaadi M, Khan M. Smoking among Saudi university
students: Consumption patterns and risk factors. East Mediterr Health J. 2008;17:309â??16.
8. Al-Turki YA. Smoking habits among medical students in Central Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2006;27:700.
9. Wali SO. Smoking habits among medical students in Western Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2006;27:700â??3.
10. Saeed AA, Khoja TA, Khan SB. Smoking behaviour and attitudes among adult Saudi nationals in Riyadh
City, Saudi Arabia. Tob Control. 1996;5:215â??9.
11. Siddiqui S, Ogbeide DO, Khalifa I. Smoking in a Saudi community: Prevalence, influencing factors, and
risk perception. Fam Med. 2001;33:367â??70.
5
12. Fujii, Edwin T. (December 1980): The Demand for Cigarettes: Further Empirical Evidence and its
Implications for Public Policy Applied Economics.
13. Al Ghobain MO, Al Moamary MS, Al Shehri SN, Al-Hajjaj MS. Prevalence and characteristics of
cigarette smoking among 16 to 18 years old boys and girls in Saudi Arabia. Ann Thorac Med. 2011;6:137â??
40.
14. Benowitz NL. Cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease: Pathophysiology and implications for
treatment. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2003;46(1):91â??111.
15. Burns DM. Epidemiology of smoking-induced cardiovascular disease. Prog Cardiovasc Dis.
2003;46(1):11â??29.
16. Law MR, Wald NJ. Environmental tobacco smoke and ischemic heart disease. Prog Cardiovasc Dis.
2003;46(1):31â??38.
6
The Effect of Cigarette Taxation on Smoking
Consumption among Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia
1- GENDER :
â?¡ Male
â?¡ Female
2- AGE:
����..
3- NATIONALITY:
â?¡ Saudi
� Other ��������.
4- city:
â?¡
â?¡
â?¡
â?¡
â?¡
Dammam
Al-Khobar
Al-Ahsaa
Jubail
Other �����������.
5- level of education:
â?¡ Secondary school
â?¡ High school
â?¡ Collage
6- occupation:
â?¡
â?¡
â?¡
â?¡
â?¡
â?¡
7
Unemployed
Health field
Education
Industrial
Military field
other ��������
– Before taxation:
1- Did you smoke tobacco before taxation?
â?¡ Daily
â?¡ Less than daily
â?¡ Never
2- How many cigarettes did you usually smoke per day before
taxation?
â?¡ Cigarette
â?¡ Packs
â?¡ Carton
3- Write the number of (cigarette/packs/cartons)
������������..
â?¡
â?¡
â?¡
â?¡
â?¡
4- What brand did you usually buy before taxation?
Marlboro
â?¡ Parliament
Pall mall
â?¡ West
LM
â?¡ Chesterfield
Dunhill
â?¡ Davidoff
Others ���������������.
– After taxation :
1- Do you smoke tobacco currently?
â?¡ Daily
â?¡ Less than daily
â?¡ Never
2- How many cigarettes do you usually smoke per day?
â?¡ Cigarette
â?¡ Packs
â?¡ Carton
3- Write the number of (cigarette/packs/cartons)
������������..
4- What brand do you usually buy currently?
â?¡ Marlboro
â?¡ Parliament
â?¡ Pall mall
â?¡ West
â?¡ LM
â?¡ Chesterfield
â?¡ Dunhill
â?¡ Davidoff
� Others ���������������.
5- Is the price that you pay currently for cigarettes more, less, or the
same as before taxation?
â?¡ More
â?¡ Less
â?¡ The same
8
6- How have you changed your smoking habits since taxation?
â?¡ I smoke fewer cigarettes
â?¡ I am trying to quit
â?¡ I have consider quitting
â?¡ The same
7- Did you visit any smoking cessation program in tobacco
treatment center?
â?¡ Yes
â?¡ No
9
The Effect of Cigarrete Taxation on Smoking Consumption Among Smokers in
Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.
Khalid A Alharthi, Ali S Alqahtani, Hasan S Alasiri
Supervisor I. Jaber S Alqahtani,2
Introduction
Increases in tobacco taxes is widely considered as an effective strategy to reduce
tobacco consumption and it is related health consequences. Therefore, this study
aims to see if there is any relationship between taxation and smoking consumption
among Saudis.
But the big impact were in the brand they were buying. there were 46%(123) of
smokers buy Marlboro as their usual brand before taxation (FIGURE-3). After
taxation, it decreased to 18%(48), Most of the participants who were buying
Malboro as their usual brand changed to cheaper brand(FIGURE-2).
Methods
It is a cross-sectional research methodology. This study used questions were
adapted from validated national tobacco use (CDC) and Global Adult Tobacco
survey (GATS) from World Health Organization (WHO) that help in determining
the effect of taxation on smoking consumption. First, smoking status before and
after taxation by asking this question â??Do you smoke cigarettes every day, some
days, or not at all� Second, purchasing behavior after the taxation by asking about
the brands they buy before and after taxation. Finally, changes in smoking habits
by asking â??How have you changed your smoking habits since taxationâ?. The
questionnaire were randomly distributed in malls, cafes and restaurants of eastern
province of Saudi Arabia.
Results
Total of 266 people were included in the study. All collected data were male with
mean age (25 years ±9).
Second, â??How have you changed your smoking habits since taxationâ? this
question shows how smokers changed their smoking habits after taxation, and
the result shows that 27.8%(74) of participants think seriously about quitting and
reduce their consumption.(FIGURE-3)
Finally, the result shows there is 97%( 258 participant) did not seek any smoking
cessation clinics or programs. This reflects lack of knowledge of the effectiveness
of smoking cessation programs and clinics on smokers.(FIGURE-4)
The result shows there were 91%(243 participant) of smokers consume smoke
daily. After taxation, 18%(48) of participante decrease their smoking consumption
which is slightly significant (FIGURE-1).
Conclusion
The present study concludes that tax and price have potential to decrease
smoking consumption in Saudi Arabia. most of them react to taxation in two
ways: By reducing their consumption or by seeking cheaper brands. so further
tax and pricing police may even more effective
References
1.Health effects of cigarette smoking. [Fact sheet]. (2017).
2.Atlanta: Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention (US); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey questionnaire. 1996â??2006
3.World Health Organization(WHO), Global Adult Tobacco Survey(GATS) WHO
Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2011: Warning about the Dangers of
Tobacco. Geneva: WHO; 2011

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