Writing an outline for Mechanical Engineering project

Hello, I have a previous project that is attached and I want a good person to write a 3-page outline from it.I want it ASAP.Thanks
solar_powered_greenhouse.doc

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Solar Powered Greenhouse
Table of Contents
Page
Abstract———————————————————————————
3
1. Introduction————————————————————————
4
2. Literature review——————————————————————
5
2.1. Solar panels————————————————————————–
5
2.2. Basic System Components———————————————————-
5
6-8
8-9
2.3. Detailed Component Description————————————————-2.4. Solar Regulators——————————————————————-
2.5. Solar Batteries——————————————————————— 9-10
2.6. Deep Cycle Solar Batteries——————————————————— 10
2.7. Solar Regulator Sizing Information————————————————
11
2.8. Sample Sizing Calculation——————————————————– 11-13
2.9.
Hydroponic Systems————————————————————- 13-16
3. Materials————————————————————————– 16-17
17
3.1. Calculate Required Solar———————————————————17
3.3. Select Solar Regulators———————————————————- 17-18
18
3.4. Select Battery———————————————————————3.2. Select Solar Panels —————————————————————–
4. Discussion—————————————————————————
18
5. Conclusion ————————————————————————
18
References —————————————————————————
19
2
Abstract
This project discusses the construction of a solar powered greenhouse. The solar powered
greenhouse has been designed to maintain a stable environment agricultural activity. The
system has the ability to create an indoor agricultural environment using basic available
materials. the system was designed to grow the essential vegetables needed to meet for a
typical familyâ??s consumption. Only sunlight is required to power the greenhouse system.
3
1. Introduction
The population is currently growing at an exponential growth. As population increases, the
demand for energy, water and food will grow at alarming rates which will cause our
resources to deplete and land deforestation. Without efficient use of energy and water, our
planet might not have enough energy and water to meet the increasing population. Saudi
Arabiaâ??s agricultural development over the last three decades has been astonishing. Large
areas of desert have been turned into agricultural fields. greenhouses are the second most
popular agricultural activity after palm tree farms in Saudi Arabia. These problems can be
mitigated by using solar energy to power the cooling systems and using efficient irrigation
technologies to reduce water use. Our objective is to show the data in such a way that it is
valuable to anybody wishing to secure nursery administration skills whether you’re an
understudy, an entry-level proficient, or a novice gardener. The center is on helping you get it
the fundamental natural components and frameworks included in nursery administration and
the aptitudes essential to oversee the nursery environment. There are numerous assets
accessible on the standards of nursery plan and the various kinds of nursery structures
accessible to you, this can be not a course on nursery plan or development, and accept merely
will be applying your nursery administration expertise in a moderately well outlined and
prepared nursery whether it be a commercial nursery extend, a research teaching office, or a
domestic greenhouse.
4
2. Literature review
There are many existing greenhouses system that are implemented across the kingdom. Most
of which are using old agricultural technique. Those old green houses are highly consuming
water and power for power, cooling and watering.
2.1. Solar panels
The reason for the data on this page to give an essential comprehension of the real parts in a
basic solar power system, and to enable us to distinguish and select the right size segments
for our system.
2.2. Basic System Components
The accompanying chart demonstrates the real parts in a normal essential sunlight based
power framework.
5
The solar panel converts sunlight into DC power to charge the battery. This DC power is
bolstered to the battery by a solar regulator which guarantees the battery is charged
legitimately and not harmed. DC machines can be powered straightforwardly from the
battery; however, air conditioning apparatuses require an inverter to change over the DC
power into 240 Volt Air conditioning power. Some DC machines can be associated with the
controller to exploit the Low Voltage Separate and ensure your battery.
2.3. Detailed Component Description
Solar Panels are characterized by their rated power output in Watts. This rating is the
measure of energy the Solar Panels would be relied upon to deliver in 1 peak sun hour.
Different geographical locations receive different quantities of average peak sun hours per
day.
6
For example, in areas of Arizona State, the yearly average is around 7. The monthly figures
for this area range from below 2.95 in Dec to above 7.52 in June. This means that an 80W
solar panel would ideally produce around 240W per day in Dec and around 560W per day in
June.
Solar panels can be wired in series or in parallel to increase voltage or current respectively.
The appraised terminal voltage of a 12 Volt solar panel is more often around 17.0 Volts,
however using a controller, this voltage is lessened to around 13 to 15 Volts as required for
battery charging.
7
solar panel yield is influenced by the cell operating temperature. Boards are evaluated at an
ostensible temperature of 25 degrees Celcius. The output of a common solar panel can be to
change by 2.5% for each 5 degrees variety in temperature. As the temperature increases, the
output decreases. In view of this, it is significant that, if the boards are extremely cool
because cloud cover, and the sun blasts through the cloud, it is possible to exceed the rated
output of the panel. Remember this when measuring your sun based controller.
2.4. Solar Regulators
The purpose of solar regulators, or charge controllers a, is to manage the current from the
solar panels to keep the batteries from overcharging. Overcharging causes gassing and loss of
electrolyte resulting in damage to the batteries.
A solar regulator is utilized to detect when the batteries are completely charged and to stop,
or diminishing, the amount of current streaming to the battery.
8
Most solar regulators likewise incorporate a Low Voltage Detach include, which will turn off
the supply to the load if the battery voltage falls underneath the cut-off voltage. This prevents
the battery from permanent damage and reduced life expectancy.
A solar regulator additionally keeps the battery from back feeding into the solar panels during
the evening and, subsequently, empting the battery. Solar regulators are characterized by the
amount of current they can get from the solar panels.
2.5. Solar Batteries
Batteries have been utilized in domestic vitality capacity ordinarily are made with one of
three chemical compositions: lead corrosive, lithium particle, and saltwater. In most cases,
lithium-ion batteries are the most excellent alternative for a sun-based board framework, in
spite of the fact that other battery sorts can be more reasonable.
Lead acid: Lead corrosive batteries are a tried innovation that has been utilized in offgrid vitality frameworks for decades. Whereas they have a moderately brief life and lower
DoD than other battery sorts, they are moreover one of the slightest costly choices as of
now on the advertise within the domestic vitality capacity segment. For mortgage holders
who need to go off the framework and got to introduce parts of vitality capacity, lead
corrosive can be a great option.
Lithium ion: The larger part of unused domestic vitality capacity innovations, such as the, utilize
a few frames of the lithium particle chemical composition. Lithium particle batteries are lighter
and more compact than lead corrosive batteries. They moreover have a better DoD and longer
life expectancy when compared to lead corrosive batteries. In any case, lithium particle batteries
are costlier than their lead corrosive counterparts.
9
Saltwater: A newcomer to the domestic vitality capacity industry is the saltwater battery.
Not at all like other domestic vitality capacity choices, saltwater batteries donâ??t contain
overwhelming metals, depending instep on saltwater electrolytes. Whereas batteries that
utilize overwhelming metals, counting lead corrosive and lithium particle batteries, ought to
be arranged of with uncommon forms, a saltwater battery can be effectively reused. Be that
as it may, as an unused innovation, saltwater batteries are generally untested, and the one
company that creates sun powered batteries for domestic utilize (Aquion) recorded for
insolvency in 2017.
2.6. Deep Cycle Solar Batteries
Profound cycle batteries that are utilized in sun-powered control frameworks are planned to
be released over a long period of time (e.g. 100 hours) and energized hundreds or thousands
of times, not at all like routine car batteries which are outlined to supply a huge sum of the
current for a brief sum of time.
To guarantee long battery life, profound cycle batteries ought to not be released past 70% of
their capacity. i.e 30 % capacity remaining. Releasing past this level will essentially decrease
the life of the batteries.
Deep cycle batteries are evaluated in Ampere Hours (Ok). This rating moreover incorporates
a release rate, ordinarily at 20 or 100 hours. This rating indicates the sum of current in Amps
that the battery can supply over the desired number of hours.
As a case, a battery appraised at 120Ah at the 100-hour rate can supply an add up to of 120A
over a period of 100 hours. This would compare to 1.2A per hour. Due to inner warming at
higher release rates, the same battery might supply 110Ah at the 20-hour rate, or 5.5A per
hour for 20 hours. In hone, this battery might run a 60W 12VDC TV for over 20 hours
sometime recently being totally depleted.
10
2.7. Solar Regulator Sizing Information
A solar controller must be able to handle the greatest current that can be created by the sunpowered boards. Reflected sunlight and particular temperature conditions can increment the
yield current of a sun-powered board by as much as 25% over it evaluated yield currently.
The solar controller must be measured to handle the expanded current.
Solar controllers frequently brief the sun oriented board input when directing. This does not
harm the solar board, but it does cruel that the solar controller must be measured to handle
125% of the sun based panel’s appraised short-circuit current.
2.8. Sample Sizing Calculation
In order for you to measure the framework accurately, you would like to note the control
rating of each machine that will be drawing power from the system. For this case, we are
going calculate the control prerequisites for a campervan with:
â?¢ 2 x 15W 12VDC Fluorescent Lights
â?¢ 1 x 60W 12VDC Water Pump
â?¢ 1 x 48W 12VDC Fridge
â?¢ 1 x 50W 240VAC TV
â?¢ 1 x 600W 240VAC Microwave
(Note that a 600W microwave will devour roughly 900W of power)
11
1. Calculate Loads
Calculate total DC and AC loads:
DC Loads
â?¢ Lighting – 2 x 15W DC Lights – each utilized 2 hours per day = 60Wh/day
â?¢ Pump – 1 x 60W DC Pump – utilized 1/4 hour per day = 15Wh/day
â?¢ Fridge – 1 x 48W Ice chest – runs 8 hours per day = 384Wh/day
Total for DC Loads = 459Wh/day
2. Calculate Required Solar
Input in Central to Northern NSW anticipate a usable normal of around 5 top sun hours per
day. Required sun powered board input = (459Wh / 5h) * 1.4 = 128W.
Note: The 1.4 utilized in this equation could be a calculate we have found that can be utilized
to streamline the calculations for fundamental systems.
To ensure that satisfactory control is created within the winter months, utilize a figure of
around 4.0 to 4.5 crest sun hours per day rather than 5.
3. Select Solar Panels
Select sun powered boards to supply a least of 128W. Continuously best to go greater in
case possible: 2 x 80W sun oriented boards chosen which, when associated in parallel, will
give 160W
4. Select Solar Regulators
The appraised brief circuit current of the 80W sun based boards is 4.8 Amps each, giving an
add up to of 9.8 Amps. Select a solar controller that’s more than able of taking care of the
whole brief circuit current: 9.8 x 1.25 = 12.25 Amps.
12
5. Select Battery
Select a battery or a coordinated combination of batteries, that’s capable of providing the
entire control utilization without being released more than 70%.
In most cases, it is suggested that the batteries are measured such that they have around 3 to
4 days backup capacity. These permits for days with moo daylight and decreases the day by
day profundity of release coming about in longer battery life.
With 3 days capacity, the battery measuring would be as follows: Ah Required = (459Wh
* 3 / 12V) / 0.7 * 1.1 = 160Ah.
2.9. Hydroponic Systems
â?¢
Supplement Film Technique, or NFT, could be a sort of hydroponic framework where a
continuous stream of supplement arrangement runs over the plant’s roots.
â?¢
A trickle framework works by giving a moderate bolster of supplement arrangement to the
hydroponics medium.
13
â?¢
The essential introduces behind hydroponics is to permit the plants roots to come in
coordinate contact with the supplement arrangement, whereas moreover having to get to
oxygen, which is essential for legitimate growth.
â?¢
Hydroponics, by definition, may be a strategy of developing plants in a water-based,
supplement wealthy solution.
â?¢
Hydroponics does not utilize soil, instep the root framework is upheld utilizing a dormant
medium such as perlite, rockwool, clay pellets, peat greenery, or vermiculite.
â?¢
This sort of framework works exceptionally well since the roots of a plant retain more oxygen
from the discuss than from the supplement arrangement itself.
â?¢
An ebb & stream hydroponics framework, too known as a surge and deplete framework, may
be an incredible framework for developing plants with hydroponics.
â?¢
In a Deepwater Culture hydroponic framework, the roots are suspended in a supplement
solution.
â?¢
The most prominent chance with a hydroponics framework is that something like a pump
disappointment can murder off your plants inside hours depending on the estimate of your
system.
â?¢
This sort of framework capacities by flooding the developing region with the supplement
arrangement at particular intervals.
â?¢
A recede & stream hydroponics framework is perfect for plants that are usual to periods of
dryness.
â?¢
Aeroponics may be a hydroponics strategy by which the roots are misted with a supplement
arrangement whereas suspended within the air.
â?¢
Hydroponics is unique in that there are different procedures you’ll be able to utilize to urge
the supplement arrangement to your plants.
14
Protected cultivation or greenhouse when it will complete
Ensured development or nursery development is the most modern approach to create
primarily, horticultural crops subjectively and quantitatively and has spread extensively the
world over within the final few decades. Protected cultivation moreover known as controlled
environment agriculture (CEA) is exceedingly profitable, a traditionalist of water and land
and moreover defensive of the environment (Jensen 2002). The technology includes the
development of green crops in a controlled environment wherein the components like the
temperature, mugginess, light, soil, water, fertilizers etc. are manipulated to accomplish
greatest create as well as permit a regular supply of them indeed amid low season. By
adopting protected development innovation, the growers can look forward to distant better
much better, higher, stronger, and an improved”>a distant better and extra compensation for
tall quality produce.
15
About 115 nations within the world are into greenhouse vegetable generation commercially
(Table 1). The world scenario appears the zone beneath secured development to be nearly
623 302 hectares whereas add up to the assessed world greenhouse vegetable generation
range is 402 981. Of the total world nursery vegetable zone, soilless/hydroponic culture
frameworks account for 95 000 ha (Hickman 2011).
3. Materials
Calculate Loads
Calculate total DC and AC loads:
DC Loads
Lighting – 3 x 15W DC Lights – each used 2 hours per day = 90Wh/day
Pump – 1 x 80W DC Pump – used 6 hour per day = 480Wh/day
16
High efficiency Evaporative Cooler 1 x 65W DC – used 6 hour per day = 390Wh/day
Total for DC Loads = 960Wh/day
3.1. Calculate Required Solar
Input in Central to Northern NSW anticipate a usable normal of around 5 top sun hours per
day. Required sun powered board input = (960Wh / 5h) * 1.4 = 269W.
Note: The 1.4 utilized in this equation could be a calculate we have found that can be utilized
to streamline the calculations for fundamental systems.
To ensure that satisfactory control is created within the winter months, utilize a figure of
around 4.0 to 4.5 crest sun hours per day rather than 5.
3.2. Select Solar Panels
Select sun powered boards to supply a least of 269W. Continuously best to go greater in
case possible: 2 x 150W sun oriented boards chosen which, when associated in parallel, will
give 300W
3.3. Select Solar Regulators
The appraised brief circuit current of the 150W sun based boards is 8.8 Amps each, giving
an add up to of 17.6Amps. Select a solar controller that’s more than able of taking care of the
whole brief circuit current: 17.6 x 1.25 = 22 Amps.
3.4. Select Battery
Select a battery or a coordinated combination of batteries, that’s capable of providing the
entire control utilization without being released more than 70%.
17
In most cases, it is suggested that the batteries are measured such that they have around 3 to
4 days backup capacity. These permits for days with moo daylight and decreases the day by
day profundity of release coming about in longer battery life.
With 3 days capacity, the battery measuring would be as follows: Ah Required = (960Wh
* 3 / 12V) / 0.7 * 1.1 = 312Ah.
4. Discussion
Solar powdered greenhouse cost analysis:
ITEM
cost
High efficiency Evaporative Cooler
300
Shurflo 8000-543-936 Diaphragm / Demand WATER TRANSFER
PUMP 1.8 GPM 12V 60 ps
90
Green hous
450
150 Watt Monocrystaline Solar Panel – Mighty Max Battery brand
product *2
300
Led lamps
30
wiring
13
Blue Sky Energy Solar Boost 3000i MPPT Charge Controller, 30
Amp 12 Volt
Renogy RNG-BATT-GEL12-100 Deep Cycle Pure Gel Battery 12V
100Ah *4
249
Pips
100
Total Cost
2532$
1000
5. Conclusion
This project provides guidance to solar powered greenhouse in relation to greenhouse sun
power. The principle of supply would advocate the sun power in appropriate management of
waste sun power.
18
References
.

home


https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262671142_Protected_cultivation_of_vegetables_i
n_global_arena_A_review
http://www.simplyhydro.com/system.htm
https://www.nrel.gov
https://www.solaronline.com.au/solar_system_basics.html
http://solarelectricityhandbook.com/solar-irradiance.html
https://www.timeanddate.com/calendar/autumnal-equinox.html
https://sciencing.com/calculate-solar-insolation-8435082.html
https://www.mewa.gov.sa/ar/Pages/default.aspx
http://www.hortidaily.com/article/40786/%E2%80%9CGreenhouse%E2%80%9D-vs.%E2%80%9CProtected-Agriculture%E2%8 …
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